Unformatted text preview: Tourism and Gastronomy In recent years, a growing emphasis has been placed on tourism experiences and
attractions related to food. In many cases eating out while on holiday includes the
‘consumption’ of a local heritage, comparable to what is experienced when
visiting historical sites and museums.
Despite this increasing attention, however, systematic research on the subject
has been nearly absent. Tourism and Gastronomy addresses this by drawing together a
group of international experts in order to develop a better understanding of the
role, development and future of gastronomy and culinary heritage in tourism.
Particular attention is paid to the relationship between the forces of globalisation, localisation and the use of gastronomy and to food as a source of regional
and national identity, and a source of economic development.
The ﬁrst part of the book discusses important issues in the relationship between
tourism and gastronomy, introducing the themes important to the understanding
of case studies. The second part presents a wide range of case studies of gastronomy tourism development, featuring development programmes, marketing
activities and networking between tourism and agriculture. The case studies,
drawn from a range of countries, including Australia, New Zealand, Singapore,
Spain, Portugal, Greece, Italy, Scotland and Wales, are used to explore further
themes, including intellectual property and sustainability
Students and researchers in the areas of tourism, heritage, hospitality, hotel
management and catering will ﬁnd this book an extremely valuable source of
Anne-Mette Hjalager is an independent consultant and contract researcher
based in the Science Park in Aarhus, Denmark. Over the past ten years she has
worked intensively with and for the tourism industry and she has keenly pursued
labour market and innovation issues. She also advises the Danish government and
the EU in policy planning for tourism.
Greg Richards lectures in leisure studies at Tilburg University in the Netherlands. He is co-ordinator of the Association for Tourism and Leisure Education
(ATLAS) and has led a number of EU projects in the ﬁelds of tourism education,
cultural tourism, sustainable tourism, tourism employment, conference tourism
and ICT in tourism. His main research interest is cultural tourism. Contents List of illustrations
List of contributors
xiv PART I The relationship between tourism and gastronomy
1 Gastronomy: an essential ingredient in tourism
production and consumption? 3 GREG RICHARDS 2 A typology of gastronomy tourism 21 ANNE-METTE HJALAGER 3 Demand for the gastronomy tourism product:
motivational factors 36 KEVIN FIELDS 4 Gastronomy as a tourist product: the perspective of
gastronomy studies 51 ROSARIO SCARPATO 5 Tourism as a force for gastronomic globalization
and localization 71 MICHAEL HALL AND RICHARD MITCHELL PART II Issues in gastronomic tourism development
6 On the trail of regional success: tourism, food
production and the Isle of Arran Taste Trail
STEVEN BOYNE, FIONA WILLIAMS AND DEREK HALL 91 vi Contents 7 ‘A Taste of Wales – Blas Ar Gymru’: institutional
malaise in promoting Welsh food tourism products 115 ANDREW JONES AND IAN JENKINS 8 Sustainable gastronomy as a tourist product 132 ROSARIO SCARPATO 9 Gastronomy and intellectual property 153 NEIL RAVENSCROFT AND JETSKE VAN WESTERING 10 The route to quality: Italian gastronomy networks
in operation 166 MAGDA ANTONIOLI CORIGLIANO 11 The changing nature of the relationship between
cuisine and tourism in Australia and New Zealand:
from fusion cuisine to food networks 186 MICHAEL HALL AND RICHARD MITCHELL 12 Regional food cultures: integral to the rural
tourism product? 207 SEAN BEER, JONATHAN EDWARDS, CARLOS FERNANDES AND
FRANCISCO SAMPAIO 13 Still undigested: research issues in tourism and
gastronomy 224 ANNE-METTE HJALAGER AND GREG RICHARDS Index 235 Illustrations Figures
13.1 Relating consumption and production in gastronomy tourism
The interrelationship of factors in the development of foodways
Three waves of food change in industrial society
Factors aﬀecting culinary change
Fourfold classiﬁcation of tourism and food interrelationships
Taste of Wales logo
Initiative re-launched: co-ordination between Welsh
Development Agency (WDA) and the Wales Tourist Board
Sainsbury’s campaign to promote local Welsh produce
Supply components of the wine and gastronomic tourism system
Interactions among wine and gastronomic tourism actors in Italy
The local food system
Relationship between national, regional and local strategies
Creating diﬀerent supply chains and local food systems
The interrelationship of food production systems, landscape,
hospitality, gastronomy and tourist attractions
An epistemological framework for tourism and gastronomy research 19
12.1 Typology of value added in gastronomy tourism
What New York Times restaurant critics are eating
Overview history of Australian and New Zealand foodways
Hjalager’s value added hierarchy as applied to current initiatives
in south west England and northern Portugal 33
218 Contributors Magda Antonioli Corigliano has a B.Sc. in Economics from Bocconi University (Milan) and an M.Sc. in Financial Economics from the UNCNW (UK).
She is Professor of Economic Theory and Policy and Professor of Economics
of Tourism and the Behaviour of Firms at Bocconi University, where she is
also responsible for the tourism activities of the Research Centre for Tourism
and Regional and Transport Economics (CERTET). She is Visiting Professor
of Environmental Economics at Kyoto University ( Japan), of Tourism Economics and Policy at the ESADE (Barcelona, Spain), of Economics of the
European Union and Tourism Economics within the European Studies Programme of the University of Chulalongkorn (Bangkok, Thailand). She is also
the author of various studies on industrial economics and the economics of
tourism and of the environment.
Sean Beer has a B.Sc. in agriculture from Reading, a Dip. Ag. Sci. from Massey
University, in New Zealand, and a Cert. Ed. from Wolverhampton, as well as
considerable practical experience in agriculture and marketing. He is currently Senior Lecturer in agriculture at the Centre for Land-Based Studies at
Bournemouth University. His current research interests include retailing and
the food supply chain, marketing and co-operation in agriculture, small family
farms, the producer/consumer relationship, hill and upland farming,
education and curriculum development.
Steven Boyne is a researcher within the Leisure and Tourism Management
Department of SAC (the Scottish Agricultural College). His work centres on
issues relating to the development of tourism in rural areas, particularly in the
Scottish context. Currently he is involved in research relating to tourism community relationships; tourism, food and gastronomy and skills and training
issues for small tourism businesses. He maintains an ongoing interest in
research theory and in VFR (visiting friends and relatives) tourism.
Jonathan Edwards is Head of the Centre for Land-Based Studies at the University of Bournemouth and he has been involved in a number of co-operative
training and research initiatives concerned with the agri-food industries in
western and eastern Europe. His research interests relate to the development
and diversiﬁcation of rural economies particularly in regard to the develop- Contributors ix ment of the service sector. He has worked extensively in Portugal and has
witnessed and written upon the changes that aﬀected Portugal’s rural areas
following their accession to the European Community.
Carlos Fernandes is an assistant professor in the Tourism Course at the Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo (Portugal). He completed his BA at
Syracuse University (USA), his MA at Rutgers University (USA) and is currently enrolled in the Ph.D. programme at Bournemouth University (UK).
Research interests include tourism as a strategy for local development and
cultural tourism. He has participated in numerous EU projects related to
tourism, presented papers at major international tourism conferences and
published widely in the English and Portuguese languages.
Kevin Fields has lectured for the past eleven years in hospitality and tourismrelated subjects at Birmingham College of Food and Tourism. He is also
programme manager for BA (Hons) Hospitality and Food Management.
Derek Hall is Professor of Regional Development and Head of the Leisure and
Tourism Management Department of SAC (the Scottish Agricultural College).
He has undertaken a wide variety of research relating to tourism and rural and
regional development including work in socialist and post-socialist countries.
Additionally, Derek has research interests relating to the role of animals in
tourism; tourism and transport; gender and welfare dimensions in tourism. His
Ph.D. was focused on perception and evaluation of local community.
Michael Hall is Professor and Head of the Department of Tourism at the
University of Otago in New Zealand. He is also co-editor of Current Issues in
Tourism and Chairperson of the International Geographical Union Study
Group on Tourism, Leisure and Social Change. He has published widely on
areas relating to tourism, heritage and environmental history. Current research
interests include tourism as a component of economic restructuring, particularly in rural areas; contemporary mobility, second homes, wine and food
tourism, gastronomy and lifestyle.
Anne-Mette Hjalager is an independent consultant and contract researcher
based in the Science Park in Aarhus, Denmark. Over the past ten years she has
worked intensively with and for the tourism industry, and she has keenly pursued labour market and innovation issues. Anne-Mette Hjalager advises the
Danish government and the EU in policy planning for tourism.
Ian Jenkins is a Senior Lecturer at the School of Leisure and Tourism, Swansea
Institute and is currently Co-Director of the CELTaS tourism and leisure
research unit. This unit has produced a number of articles and research
reports on subject areas such as food tourism, heritage, museums and urban
areas. He is also Director of the SAIL Research Unit, which has produced
leading edge research on Tourism and Leisure Safety Management. Ian is
currently co-ordinator of the School’s Socrates and Erasmus programmes. He
has carried out numerous research and consultancy projects relating to tourism x Contributors
and leisure and his specialisms include: Geography of Tourism, Tourism and
Leisure Philosophy, and Risk and Safety Management. Andrew Jones is a Senior Lecturer and Co-Director of the CELTaS tourism
and leisure research unit at Swansea Institute. He has professional experience
in planning at regional and local levels and has been involved in the professional body – the RTPI. Andrew is currently Course Director for the M.Sc. in
Tourism Resource Management. Andrew has also completed a fourteen
month sabbatical as a research fellow at the University of Brunei. Here his
research centred upon conservation, heritage and eco tourism development.
Subject specialisms include Tourism Planning; Urban Regeneration;
Conservation; Cultural Tourism Development and Environmental Policy.
Richard Mitchell is a Senior Lecturer in Tourism Marketing at La Trobe
University, Melbourne, Australia. He has undertaken extensive research on
wine tourism in New Zealand and has recently commenced researching wine
and food tourism in Australia, with a special focus on the Yarra Valley and
Neil Ravenscroft is Principal Research Fellow at the Chelsea School, University
of Brighton, England, where he is currently working on a number of projects
related to people’s everyday experience of leisure. Neil has written extensively
on leisure, culture and environment, and is currently a member of the editorial
boards of Leisure Studies and the Journal of Leisure Property.
Greg Richards lectures in leisure studies at Tilburg University in the
Netherlands. He is Co-ordinator of the Association for Tourism and Leisure
Education (ATLAS) and he has led a number of EU projects in the ﬁelds of
tourism education, cultural tourism, sustainable tourism, tourism employment, conference tourism and ICT in tourism. His main research interest is
cultural tourism. He has edited books on Cultural Tourism in Europe (1996), Crafts
Tourism Development and Marketing (1999), Tourism and Sustainable Community
Development (2000) and European Tourism and Cultural Attractions (2001).
Francisco Sampaio is the co-ordinator of the Tourism Course at the Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo and President of the Regional Tourism
Board of the Alto Minho. He completed his Licenciatura at the University of
Porto (Portugal), a post-graduate degree at the University de Navarra (Spain)
and is currently enrolled in the Ph.D. programme at the University of Aveiro
(Portugal). He has published extensively on the subject of gastronomy and has
co-ordinated numerous regional gastronomy events and congresses in the last
few years and is chairman of the Fraternity of Gastronomers of the Minho
Rosario Scarpato is a food and wine writer and gastronomy researcher. He has
lived and worked in Melbourne (Australia) since 1989 and regularly contributes to media in Italy (Gambero Rosso, Corriere della Sera), Australia (Divine, The Age)
and Argentina (Cuisine & Vins). Rosario is the author of path-breaking essays Contributors xi on gastronomy as an independent academic discipline and sustainable gastronomy. He holds a Master of Arts and is Ph.D. candidate at Melbourne La
Trobe University, School of Tourism and Hospitality.
Jetske van Westering is Lecturer in Hospitality Management. Her research
interests include Gastronomy, Food and Wine Tourism, Food and Wine
Marketing and Hospitality Operations Management.
Fiona Williams is a researcher within the Rural Policy Group at the Scottish
Agricultural College (SAC). Her research remit is rural development with a
responsibility for tourism. Currently, Fiona is working on an EU FP5 project
(co-ordinated by SAC), ‘Aspatial Peripherality, Innovation and the Rural
Economy’. Fiona was previously a lecturer on advanced level Tourism/Leisure
Management courses at Herefordshire College. During her early career she
was employed by the University of Wales Institute, Cardiﬀ and completed her
M.Phil. at this time. Preface The aim of this book is to provide a theoretical analysis of the growing relationship between tourism and gastronomy, supported by practical examples of
gastronomy tourism development and marketing from diﬀerent countries and
The book is a result of a transnational collaboration between members of the
Association for Tourism and Leisure Education (ATLAS). A group of
researchers from diﬀerent disciplinary backgrounds was brought together in
Portugal for the First International Gastronomy Congress staged by the
Regional Tourist Board of the Alto Minho. The papers presented at the congress were prepared in advance, allowing the group the luxury of substantial
discussion and debate regarding the content of individual contributions and the
text as a whole.
The process of meeting in Portugal was also extremely useful in informing
the development of the text, since the staging of the congress itself was stimulated by Portuguese eﬀorts to protect their gastronomy from the eﬀect of EU
regulations and to develop gastronomy tourism as a means of preserving gastronomic heritage. By bringing together a transnational team of scholars in
Portugal we could contrast the Portuguese approach to gastronomy tourism
with those adopted in other parts of the world. Discussions among the research
team and with congress delegates helped to inform the issues dealt with in this
In our discussions in Portugal the team also tried to clarify what the function of
the text should be. It was agreed that it was beyond the scope of a single book to
present a geographically comprehensive review of the relationships between tourism and gastronomy worldwide. Instead, we have tried to emphasize some of the
major issues in the relationship between tourism and gastronomy and to illustrate
these with a limited range of case studies. In bringing together authors from
diﬀerent regions and disciplinary backgrounds we also sought to highlight common themes as well as the value of a comparative approach. Because of the
previous lack of academic work in this ﬁeld, we felt it was important that the
book should be given a theoretical emphasis, but we have also tried to illustrate
the practical implications for the development and marketing of gastronomic
tourism where possible. We have also been conscious of the signiﬁcant gaps in Preface xiii our knowledge, and directions for future research have therefore also been
Anne-Mette Hjalager and Greg Richards
September 2001 Acknowledgements It goes without saying that thanks are due to all the contributors to this volume for
their sterling eﬀorts in producing the text, but in this case their contributions to
the debates and discussions held by the authors in Portugal were also crucial to the
whole production process.
For the opportunity to meet in Portugal we are extremely grateful to the
Regional Tourist Board of the Alto Minho and in particular Franciso Sampaio for
the hospitality we received in the region. Carlos Fernandes also played a key role
in initiating and organizing the whole event, in his usual inimitable style.
Of course the whole exercise would not have been possible without the support
provided by ATLAS, and in particular the ATLAS Project Manager Leontine
We are grateful to the Wales Tourist Board, the Welsh Development
Agency and Sainsbury’s Supermarkets for permission to reproduce the ﬁgures in
Chapter 7. 1 Gastronomy: an essential
ingredient in tourism
Greg Richards Introduction
As competition between tourism destinations increases, local culture is becoming
an increasingly valuable source of new products and activities to attract and
amuse tourists. Gastronomy has a particularly important role to play in this, not
only because food is central to the tourist experience, but also because gastronomy
has become a signiﬁcant source of identity formation in postmodern societies.
More and more, ‘we are what we eat’, not just in the physical sense, but also
because we identify with certain types of cuisine that we encounter on holiday.
As tourists become more mobile, so does the food they eat. The comfortable
association of certain foods with particular regions is being challenged by the
growing mobility of food, culinary styles and the increasing de-diﬀerentiation of
dishes and cuisines. Far from producing an homogenized gastronomic landscape,
the tension between globalization and localization is producing ever more variations. Not only are global drinks and foods emerging, such as Coca-Cola and
McDonald’s, but local and regional food is thriving, and new ‘fusion foods’ are
also being created to feed the ‘global soul’ (Iyer 2000). Tourists themselves are
contributing to gastronomic mobility, by creating a demand in their own countries
for foods they have encountered abroad.
Gastronomy has developed considerably through the ages, and there are
numerous studies that chart the development of gastronomic styles and tastes over
time. For example, Mennell (1985) traces the development of eating in England
and France since the Middle Ages, and Parsa (1998) has summarized the development of Western cuisine in America. In Chapter 4 of this volume Rosario
Scarpato examines the development of the concept of gastronomy in some detail.
Gastronomy is not only extremely diﬃcult to deﬁne, but the term, j...
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