[Greg_Richards]_Tourism_and_Gastronomy_(Routledge_(b-ok.xyz).pdf

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Unformatted text preview: Tourism and Gastronomy In recent years, a growing emphasis has been placed on tourism experiences and attractions related to food. In many cases eating out while on holiday includes the ‘consumption’ of a local heritage, comparable to what is experienced when visiting historical sites and museums. Despite this increasing attention, however, systematic research on the subject has been nearly absent. Tourism and Gastronomy addresses this by drawing together a group of international experts in order to develop a better understanding of the role, development and future of gastronomy and culinary heritage in tourism. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between the forces of globalisation, localisation and the use of gastronomy and to food as a source of regional and national identity, and a source of economic development. The first part of the book discusses important issues in the relationship between tourism and gastronomy, introducing the themes important to the understanding of case studies. The second part presents a wide range of case studies of gastronomy tourism development, featuring development programmes, marketing activities and networking between tourism and agriculture. The case studies, drawn from a range of countries, including Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Italy, Scotland and Wales, are used to explore further themes, including intellectual property and sustainability Students and researchers in the areas of tourism, heritage, hospitality, hotel management and catering will find this book an extremely valuable source of information. Anne-Mette Hjalager is an independent consultant and contract researcher based in the Science Park in Aarhus, Denmark. Over the past ten years she has worked intensively with and for the tourism industry and she has keenly pursued labour market and innovation issues. She also advises the Danish government and the EU in policy planning for tourism. Greg Richards lectures in leisure studies at Tilburg University in the Netherlands. He is co-ordinator of the Association for Tourism and Leisure Education (ATLAS) and has led a number of EU projects in the fields of tourism education, cultural tourism, sustainable tourism, tourism employment, conference tourism and ICT in tourism. His main research interest is cultural tourism. Contents List of illustrations List of contributors Preface Acknowledgements vii viii xii xiv PART I The relationship between tourism and gastronomy 1 Gastronomy: an essential ingredient in tourism production and consumption? 3 GREG RICHARDS 2 A typology of gastronomy tourism 21 ANNE-METTE HJALAGER 3 Demand for the gastronomy tourism product: motivational factors 36 KEVIN FIELDS 4 Gastronomy as a tourist product: the perspective of gastronomy studies 51 ROSARIO SCARPATO 5 Tourism as a force for gastronomic globalization and localization 71 MICHAEL HALL AND RICHARD MITCHELL PART II Issues in gastronomic tourism development 6 On the trail of regional success: tourism, food production and the Isle of Arran Taste Trail STEVEN BOYNE, FIONA WILLIAMS AND DEREK HALL 91 vi Contents 7 ‘A Taste of Wales – Blas Ar Gymru’: institutional malaise in promoting Welsh food tourism products 115 ANDREW JONES AND IAN JENKINS 8 Sustainable gastronomy as a tourist product 132 ROSARIO SCARPATO 9 Gastronomy and intellectual property 153 NEIL RAVENSCROFT AND JETSKE VAN WESTERING 10 The route to quality: Italian gastronomy networks in operation 166 MAGDA ANTONIOLI CORIGLIANO 11 The changing nature of the relationship between cuisine and tourism in Australia and New Zealand: from fusion cuisine to food networks 186 MICHAEL HALL AND RICHARD MITCHELL 12 Regional food cultures: integral to the rural tourism product? 207 SEAN BEER, JONATHAN EDWARDS, CARLOS FERNANDES AND FRANCISCO SAMPAIO 13 Still undigested: research issues in tourism and gastronomy 224 ANNE-METTE HJALAGER AND GREG RICHARDS Index 235 Illustrations Figures 1.1 5.1 5.2 5.3 6.1 7.1 7.2 7.3 10.1 10.2 11.1 11.2 11.3 12.1 13.1 Relating consumption and production in gastronomy tourism experiences The interrelationship of factors in the development of foodways Three waves of food change in industrial society Factors affecting culinary change Fourfold classification of tourism and food interrelationships with sub-themes Taste of Wales logo Initiative re-launched: co-ordination between Welsh Development Agency (WDA) and the Wales Tourist Board (WTB) Sainsbury’s campaign to promote local Welsh produce Supply components of the wine and gastronomic tourism system Interactions among wine and gastronomic tourism actors in Italy The local food system Relationship between national, regional and local strategies Creating different supply chains and local food systems The interrelationship of food production systems, landscape, hospitality, gastronomy and tourist attractions An epistemological framework for tourism and gastronomy research 19 73 74 78 93 119 120 127 169 176 188 197 202 212 228 Tables 2.1 5.1 11.1 12.1 Typology of value added in gastronomy tourism What New York Times restaurant critics are eating Overview history of Australian and New Zealand foodways Hjalager’s value added hierarchy as applied to current initiatives in south west England and northern Portugal 33 80 189 218 Contributors Magda Antonioli Corigliano has a B.Sc. in Economics from Bocconi University (Milan) and an M.Sc. in Financial Economics from the UNCNW (UK). She is Professor of Economic Theory and Policy and Professor of Economics of Tourism and the Behaviour of Firms at Bocconi University, where she is also responsible for the tourism activities of the Research Centre for Tourism and Regional and Transport Economics (CERTET). She is Visiting Professor of Environmental Economics at Kyoto University ( Japan), of Tourism Economics and Policy at the ESADE (Barcelona, Spain), of Economics of the European Union and Tourism Economics within the European Studies Programme of the University of Chulalongkorn (Bangkok, Thailand). She is also the author of various studies on industrial economics and the economics of tourism and of the environment. Sean Beer has a B.Sc. in agriculture from Reading, a Dip. Ag. Sci. from Massey University, in New Zealand, and a Cert. Ed. from Wolverhampton, as well as considerable practical experience in agriculture and marketing. He is currently Senior Lecturer in agriculture at the Centre for Land-Based Studies at Bournemouth University. His current research interests include retailing and the food supply chain, marketing and co-operation in agriculture, small family farms, the producer/consumer relationship, hill and upland farming, education and curriculum development. Steven Boyne is a researcher within the Leisure and Tourism Management Department of SAC (the Scottish Agricultural College). His work centres on issues relating to the development of tourism in rural areas, particularly in the Scottish context. Currently he is involved in research relating to tourism community relationships; tourism, food and gastronomy and skills and training issues for small tourism businesses. He maintains an ongoing interest in research theory and in VFR (visiting friends and relatives) tourism. Jonathan Edwards is Head of the Centre for Land-Based Studies at the University of Bournemouth and he has been involved in a number of co-operative training and research initiatives concerned with the agri-food industries in western and eastern Europe. His research interests relate to the development and diversification of rural economies particularly in regard to the develop- Contributors ix ment of the service sector. He has worked extensively in Portugal and has witnessed and written upon the changes that affected Portugal’s rural areas following their accession to the European Community. Carlos Fernandes is an assistant professor in the Tourism Course at the Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo (Portugal). He completed his BA at Syracuse University (USA), his MA at Rutgers University (USA) and is currently enrolled in the Ph.D. programme at Bournemouth University (UK). Research interests include tourism as a strategy for local development and cultural tourism. He has participated in numerous EU projects related to tourism, presented papers at major international tourism conferences and published widely in the English and Portuguese languages. Kevin Fields has lectured for the past eleven years in hospitality and tourismrelated subjects at Birmingham College of Food and Tourism. He is also programme manager for BA (Hons) Hospitality and Food Management. Derek Hall is Professor of Regional Development and Head of the Leisure and Tourism Management Department of SAC (the Scottish Agricultural College). He has undertaken a wide variety of research relating to tourism and rural and regional development including work in socialist and post-socialist countries. Additionally, Derek has research interests relating to the role of animals in tourism; tourism and transport; gender and welfare dimensions in tourism. His Ph.D. was focused on perception and evaluation of local community. Michael Hall is Professor and Head of the Department of Tourism at the University of Otago in New Zealand. He is also co-editor of Current Issues in Tourism and Chairperson of the International Geographical Union Study Group on Tourism, Leisure and Social Change. He has published widely on areas relating to tourism, heritage and environmental history. Current research interests include tourism as a component of economic restructuring, particularly in rural areas; contemporary mobility, second homes, wine and food tourism, gastronomy and lifestyle. Anne-Mette Hjalager is an independent consultant and contract researcher based in the Science Park in Aarhus, Denmark. Over the past ten years she has worked intensively with and for the tourism industry, and she has keenly pursued labour market and innovation issues. Anne-Mette Hjalager advises the Danish government and the EU in policy planning for tourism. Ian Jenkins is a Senior Lecturer at the School of Leisure and Tourism, Swansea Institute and is currently Co-Director of the CELTaS tourism and leisure research unit. This unit has produced a number of articles and research reports on subject areas such as food tourism, heritage, museums and urban areas. He is also Director of the SAIL Research Unit, which has produced leading edge research on Tourism and Leisure Safety Management. Ian is currently co-ordinator of the School’s Socrates and Erasmus programmes. He has carried out numerous research and consultancy projects relating to tourism x Contributors and leisure and his specialisms include: Geography of Tourism, Tourism and Leisure Philosophy, and Risk and Safety Management. Andrew Jones is a Senior Lecturer and Co-Director of the CELTaS tourism and leisure research unit at Swansea Institute. He has professional experience in planning at regional and local levels and has been involved in the professional body – the RTPI. Andrew is currently Course Director for the M.Sc. in Tourism Resource Management. Andrew has also completed a fourteen month sabbatical as a research fellow at the University of Brunei. Here his research centred upon conservation, heritage and eco tourism development. Subject specialisms include Tourism Planning; Urban Regeneration; Conservation; Cultural Tourism Development and Environmental Policy. Richard Mitchell is a Senior Lecturer in Tourism Marketing at La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia. He has undertaken extensive research on wine tourism in New Zealand and has recently commenced researching wine and food tourism in Australia, with a special focus on the Yarra Valley and Coldstream Hills. Neil Ravenscroft is Principal Research Fellow at the Chelsea School, University of Brighton, England, where he is currently working on a number of projects related to people’s everyday experience of leisure. Neil has written extensively on leisure, culture and environment, and is currently a member of the editorial boards of Leisure Studies and the Journal of Leisure Property. Greg Richards lectures in leisure studies at Tilburg University in the Netherlands. He is Co-ordinator of the Association for Tourism and Leisure Education (ATLAS) and he has led a number of EU projects in the fields of tourism education, cultural tourism, sustainable tourism, tourism employment, conference tourism and ICT in tourism. His main research interest is cultural tourism. He has edited books on Cultural Tourism in Europe (1996), Crafts Tourism Development and Marketing (1999), Tourism and Sustainable Community Development (2000) and European Tourism and Cultural Attractions (2001). Francisco Sampaio is the co-ordinator of the Tourism Course at the Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo and President of the Regional Tourism Board of the Alto Minho. He completed his Licenciatura at the University of Porto (Portugal), a post-graduate degree at the University de Navarra (Spain) and is currently enrolled in the Ph.D. programme at the University of Aveiro (Portugal). He has published extensively on the subject of gastronomy and has co-ordinated numerous regional gastronomy events and congresses in the last few years and is chairman of the Fraternity of Gastronomers of the Minho region. Rosario Scarpato is a food and wine writer and gastronomy researcher. He has lived and worked in Melbourne (Australia) since 1989 and regularly contributes to media in Italy (Gambero Rosso, Corriere della Sera), Australia (Divine, The Age) and Argentina (Cuisine & Vins). Rosario is the author of path-breaking essays Contributors xi on gastronomy as an independent academic discipline and sustainable gastronomy. He holds a Master of Arts and is Ph.D. candidate at Melbourne La Trobe University, School of Tourism and Hospitality. Jetske van Westering is Lecturer in Hospitality Management. Her research interests include Gastronomy, Food and Wine Tourism, Food and Wine Marketing and Hospitality Operations Management. Fiona Williams is a researcher within the Rural Policy Group at the Scottish Agricultural College (SAC). Her research remit is rural development with a responsibility for tourism. Currently, Fiona is working on an EU FP5 project (co-ordinated by SAC), ‘Aspatial Peripherality, Innovation and the Rural Economy’. Fiona was previously a lecturer on advanced level Tourism/Leisure Management courses at Herefordshire College. During her early career she was employed by the University of Wales Institute, Cardiff and completed her M.Phil. at this time. Preface The aim of this book is to provide a theoretical analysis of the growing relationship between tourism and gastronomy, supported by practical examples of gastronomy tourism development and marketing from different countries and regions. The book is a result of a transnational collaboration between members of the Association for Tourism and Leisure Education (ATLAS). A group of researchers from different disciplinary backgrounds was brought together in Portugal for the First International Gastronomy Congress staged by the Regional Tourist Board of the Alto Minho. The papers presented at the congress were prepared in advance, allowing the group the luxury of substantial discussion and debate regarding the content of individual contributions and the text as a whole. The process of meeting in Portugal was also extremely useful in informing the development of the text, since the staging of the congress itself was stimulated by Portuguese efforts to protect their gastronomy from the effect of EU regulations and to develop gastronomy tourism as a means of preserving gastronomic heritage. By bringing together a transnational team of scholars in Portugal we could contrast the Portuguese approach to gastronomy tourism with those adopted in other parts of the world. Discussions among the research team and with congress delegates helped to inform the issues dealt with in this book. In our discussions in Portugal the team also tried to clarify what the function of the text should be. It was agreed that it was beyond the scope of a single book to present a geographically comprehensive review of the relationships between tourism and gastronomy worldwide. Instead, we have tried to emphasize some of the major issues in the relationship between tourism and gastronomy and to illustrate these with a limited range of case studies. In bringing together authors from different regions and disciplinary backgrounds we also sought to highlight common themes as well as the value of a comparative approach. Because of the previous lack of academic work in this field, we felt it was important that the book should be given a theoretical emphasis, but we have also tried to illustrate the practical implications for the development and marketing of gastronomic tourism where possible. We have also been conscious of the significant gaps in Preface xiii our knowledge, and directions for future research have therefore also been emphasized. Anne-Mette Hjalager and Greg Richards September 2001 Acknowledgements It goes without saying that thanks are due to all the contributors to this volume for their sterling efforts in producing the text, but in this case their contributions to the debates and discussions held by the authors in Portugal were also crucial to the whole production process. For the opportunity to meet in Portugal we are extremely grateful to the Regional Tourist Board of the Alto Minho and in particular Franciso Sampaio for the hospitality we received in the region. Carlos Fernandes also played a key role in initiating and organizing the whole event, in his usual inimitable style. Of course the whole exercise would not have been possible without the support provided by ATLAS, and in particular the ATLAS Project Manager Leontine Onderwater. We are grateful to the Wales Tourist Board, the Welsh Development Agency and Sainsbury’s Supermarkets for permission to reproduce the figures in Chapter 7. 1 Gastronomy: an essential ingredient in tourism production and consumption? Greg Richards Introduction As competition between tourism destinations increases, local culture is becoming an increasingly valuable source of new products and activities to attract and amuse tourists. Gastronomy has a particularly important role to play in this, not only because food is central to the tourist experience, but also because gastronomy has become a significant source of identity formation in postmodern societies. More and more, ‘we are what we eat’, not just in the physical sense, but also because we identify with certain types of cuisine that we encounter on holiday. As tourists become more mobile, so does the food they eat. The comfortable association of certain foods with particular regions is being challenged by the growing mobility of food, culinary styles and the increasing de-differentiation of dishes and cuisines. Far from producing an homogenized gastronomic landscape, the tension between globalization and localization is producing ever more variations. Not only are global drinks and foods emerging, such as Coca-Cola and McDonald’s, but local and regional food is thriving, and new ‘fusion foods’ are also being created to feed the ‘global soul’ (Iyer 2000). Tourists themselves are contributing to gastronomic mobility, by creating a demand in their own countries for foods they have encountered abroad. Gastronomy has developed considerably through the ages, and there are numerous studies that chart the development of gastronomic styles and tastes over time. For example, Mennell (1985) traces the development of eating in England and France since the Middle Ages, and Parsa (1998) has summarized the development of Western cuisine in America. In Chapter 4 of this volume Rosario Scarpato examines the development of the concept of gastronomy in some detail. Gastronomy is not only extremely difficult to define, but the term, j...
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