Chapter 17 Even Problem Solutions - CHAPTER SEVENTEEN...

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CHAPTER SEVENTEEN PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS 12. 0.365 mol sucrose per liter 14. Concentration of NiCl 2 = 1.54 × 10 -2 mol per liter = 1.54 × 10 -2 mol per liter M Cl— = 3.08 × 10 -2 mol per liter 16. 160 mL Concentration of Solutions 18. mass % CsCl = 50.0 % CsCl by mass Molarity = 4.69 mol/L Molality = 5.94 mol/kg Mole Fraction CsCl = 9.68 × 10 -2 20. Chemical Molarity Molality Mole fraction HCl 12 mol/L 17 mol/kg 0.23 HNO 3 16 mol/L 37 mol/kg 0.39 H 2 SO 4 18 mol/L 200 mol/kg 0.76 CH 3 COOH 17 mol/L 2000 mol/kg 0.96 NH 3 15 mol/L 23 mol/kg 0.29 22. mass % ethanol = 10.1 % by mass molality = 2.45 mol/kg
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24.Mole fraction of acetone = 0.0441 molarity = 0.746 M 26. a. Dissolve 15 g KCl in 100. mL H O to prepare a 2.0 m KCl solution. This will give us slightly more than 100 mL, but this will be the easiest way to make the solution. Since we don’t know the density of the solution, we can’t calculate the molarity and use a volumetric flask to make exactly 100 mL of solution. b. Dissolve 18 g NaOH in 100. mL H 2 O to make a 15% NaOH solution by mass. c. Dissolve 26 g NaOH in 100. mL CH 3 OH. d. Dissolve 110 g C 6 H 12 O 6 in 100 ml of H 2 O to prepare a solution with χ C6H12O6 = 0.10 Thermodynamics of Solutions and Solubility 28. The dissolving of an ionic solute in water can be thought of as taking place in two steps. The first step, called the lattice energy term, refers to breaking apart the ionic compound into gaseous ions. This step, as indicated in the problem requires a lot of energy and is unfavorable. The second step, called the hydration energy term, refers to the energy released when the separated gaseous ions are stabilized as water molecules surround the ions. Since the interactions between water molecules and ions are strong, then a lot of energy is released when ions are hydrated. Thus, the dissolution process for ionic compounds can be thought of as consisting of an unfavorable and a favorable energy term. These two processes basically cancel each other out; so when ionic solids dissolve in water, the heat released or gained is minimal and the temperature change is minimal. 30. a. For CaCl 2 , ∆H soln = -46 kJ For CaI 2 , ∆H soln = -104 kJ b. The enthalpy of hydration for CaCl 2 is more exothermic than for CaI 2 . Any differences must be due to differences in hydrations between Cl and I . Thus, the chloride ion is more strongly hydrated as compared to the iodide ion. 32. a. Mg 2+ ; smaller, higher charge b. Be 2+ ; smaller c. Fe 3+ ; smaller size, higher charge d. F ; - smaller e. Cl ; - smaller f. SO 4 2 - ; higher charge 34. Water is a polar solvent and dissolves polar solutes and ionic solutes. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) is a nonpolar solvent and dissolves nonpolar solutes (like dissolves like).
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a. CCl 4 b. Water c. Water d. Water e. CCl 4 36. The main intermolecular forces are: hexane (C 6 H 14 ): London dispersion; chloroform, (CHCl 3 ): dipole-dipole, London dispersion; methanol (CH 3 OH):
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