Chapter 21 Even Problem Solutions

Chapter 21 Even Problem Solutions - CHAPTER TWENTY-ONE THE...

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CHAPTER TWENTY-ONE THE NUCLEUS: A CHEMIST'S VIEW Radioactive Decay and Nuclear Transformations 2. a. b. c. d. 4. a. 1 b. c. The intermediate are: 6. has too many protons. It will undergo either positron production, electron capture and/or alpha particle production. has too many neutrons and will undergo beta particle production. (See Table 21.2 of the text.) The reactions are:
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8. The most abundant isotope is generally the most stable isotope. The periodic table predicts that the most stable isotopes for Exercises a -d are 39 K, 56 Fe, 23 Na and 204 Tl. (Reference Table 21.2 of the text for potential decay processes.) a. Unstable; 45 K has too many neutrons and will undergo beta particle production. b. Stable c. Unstable; 20 Na has too few neutrons and will most likely undergo electron capture or positron production. Alpha particle production makes too severe of a change to be a likely decay process for the relatively light 20 Na nuclei. Alpha particle production usually occurs for heavy nuclei. d. Unstable; 194 Tl has too few neutrons and will undergo electron capture, positron production and/or alpha particle production. c. d. Kinetics of Radioactive Decay 12. Kr-81 is most stable since it has the longest half-life while Kr-73 is hottest (least stable) since it has the shortest half-life. For Kr-73: t = 81 s For Kr-74: t = 34.5 min For Kr-76: t = 44.4 h For Kr-81: t = 6.3 × 10 5 yr 14. a.1.3 ng Na 2 38 SO 4 b. t = 38.1 hours 40 hours
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16. t = 54 days 18. The assumptions are that the 14 C level in the atmosphere is constant or that the 14 C level at the time the plant died can be calculated. A constant 14 C level is a poor assumption and accounting for variation is complicated. Another problem is that some of the material must be destroyed to determine the 14 C level. 20. If we had 10 mg C, we would see = 0.026 counts /min
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Chapter 21 Even Problem Solutions - CHAPTER TWENTY-ONE THE...

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