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final neuro review

final neuro review - Chapter 12 Emotional and Motivational...

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Chapter 12- Emotional and Motivational Behaviour Evolutionary Influences on Behaviour - Innate releasing mechanism (IRM) Hypothetical mechanism that detects specific sensory stimuli and directs and organism to take particular action The brain must have a ser of norms afainst which it can match stimuli so as to trigger an appropriate response Athough IRMs are prewired into the brain, they can be modified with experience - Evolutionary Psycholog Discipline that seeks to apply principles of natural selection to understand the causes of human behaviour Behaviours exist because the neural circuits producing them have been favoured through natural selection Emotion - Three components of emotion Autonomic response ( increases heart rate) hypothalamus and associated structures Subjective feelings (fear) amygdala and parts of frontal lobes Motor output (freezing or avoiding) basal ganglia and frontal lobe motor circuits Neuroanatomy of emotional behaviour - Amygdala Almond- shaped collection of nuclei located with the temporal lobe- anterior to hippocampus Plays a role in emotional and species- specific behaviours Received input from all sensory systems Neurons respond to more than one sensory modality (multimodal) Send projections primarily to the hypothalamus and brainstem and basal ganglia The Amygdala and Emotional Behavior - Involved in species-specific behaviours and fear - Influences autonomic and hormonal responses via connections with the hypothalamus - Influences behavioural output via connections with basal ganglia - Kulver- Bucy syndrome Behavioural syndrome, characterized especially by fearlessness, that results from bilateral injury to the amygdale Threat detection - Visual sensory stimuli enter the thalamus - Information goes to amgdala (as well as visual cortex in occipital lobe) to be processed as a threat - Amygdale sends information to hypothalamus to gear up sympathetic activity
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- These reactions lead to a state of heightened tension (anxiety), considered to be equivalent to the psychological experience of fear Neuroanatomy of Motivated Behaviour - Critical structures Hypothalamus and associate pituitary gland sends info to other brainstem/motor circuits to produce behaviour Limbic system and frontal lobes both project to the hypothalamus - Homeostatic mechanism Process that maintains critical body functions within a narrow, fixed range Controlling Eating Hypothalamus - Aphagia Failure to eat; may be due to an unwillingness to eat or to motor difficulties, especially with swallowing; observed following lesions to the lateral hypothalamus - Hyperphagia Disorder in which an animal overeats, leading to significant weight gain; observed following lesions to the ventromedial hypothalamus and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus - Controls adjustments in processes such as heart rate and body temperature - Maintains the body’s status quo - Receives inputs about the state of the body, and must be able to initiate compensatory
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final neuro review - Chapter 12 Emotional and Motivational...

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