Chap 3 notes

Chap 3 notes - What Is a Liquid? A liquid is a state of...

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Unformatted text preview: What Is a Liquid? A liquid is a state of matter in which a sample of matter flows and can change its shape. is not easily compressible and maintains a relatively fixed volume. A sample of bromine (Br 2 ) at room temperature is shown below. This bottle contains both liquid bromine [Br 2 ( l ), the darker phase at the bottom of the bottle] and gaseous bromine [Br 2 ( g ), the lighter phase above the liquid]. The circles show microscopic views of both liquid bromine and gaseous bromine. As may be seen in the microscopic view of liquid bromine, Liquids are made up of very small particles (atoms, molecules, and/or ions). The particles that make up a liquid: o are close together with no regular arrangement, o vibrate, move about, and slide past each other. The following figures show the microscopic behavior of the atoms in liquid argon and the molecules in liquid bromine and liquid water. Note how the molecules in a liquid move as units. Microscopic view of the atoms in liquid argon. Microscopic view of the Br 2 molecules in liquid bromine. Microscopic view of the H 2 O molecules in liquid water. Gases, Liquids, and Solids Gases, liquids and solids are all made up of atoms, molecules, and/or ions, but the behaviors of these particles differ in the three phases. The following figure illustrates the microscopic differences. Microscopic view of a gas. Microscopic view of a liquid. Microscopic view of a solid. Note that: Particles in a: o gas are well separated with no regular arrangement. o liquid are close together with no regular arrangement. o solid are tightly packed, usually in a regular pattern. Particles in a: o gas vibrate and move freely at high speeds. o liquid vibrate, move about, and slide past each other. o solid vibrate (jiggle) but generally do not move from place to place. Liquids and solids are often referred to as condensed phases because the particles are very close together. The following table summarizes properties of gases, liquids, and solids and identifies the microscopic behavior responsible for each property. Some Characteristics of Gases, Liquids and Solids and the Microscopic Explanation for the Behavior gas liquid solid assumes the shape and volume of its container particles can move past one another assumes the shape of the part of the container which it occupies particles can move/slide past one another retains a fixed volume and shape rigid - particles locked into place compressible lots of free space between particles not easily compressible little free space between particles not easily compressible little free space between particles flows easily particles can move past one another flows easily particles can move/slide past one another does not flow easily rigid - particles cannot move/slide past one another Effects of Temperature and Pressure Temperature Effects The effect of temperature and pressure on a liquid can be described in terms of kinetic-molecular theory. The following figure illustrates the molecular behavior of a liquid at a low temperature theory....
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Chap 3 notes - What Is a Liquid? A liquid is a state of...

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