Cl1834Clapeyron 1834Forerunners: Boyle 1662; Charles 1780s; Guy-Lussac 1802Motivation: To systematically account for the diversity in the world, virtually all ancient cultures identify the same four basic elements: AIR, water, earth, fire (four different kinds of materials) 2
How to measure pressure of a gas?Simple barometervacuum (no air)The pressure of air pushing down is strong enough to support a column of th t i 76 hi h Thi mercury that is 76 cm high. This defines the “standard atmosphere”.forceMgP = = areaAMass MDensity (13.6 x 103kg/m3 )VgAAh gAhg= = =Area of tube A1 Stnd. Atm. = 1.013 x 105 Pa100 kPa = 0.1 MPa = 14.7 psi = 760 torr(1 Pa = 1 N/m2)3
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