I&I_2_10 - CHAPTER 2 COMPUTER SOFTWARE (pp.64-65,...

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1 CHAPTER 2 COMPUTER SOFTWARE (pp.64-65, 83 - 103)
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2 Software Significance Enables computers to implement data processing Software evolution software comprises a much larger percentage of the cost of modern computer systems
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3 Software Fundamentals Computer program - a sequence of instructions for the computer Programming - process of writing (or coding) programs Stored program concept – programs are stored in the computer memory Documentation – written description of program functions
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4 Electronic Data and Instructions An instruction is a detailed description of actions that should be done during data processing and transmission Binary coding schemes: ASCII – microcomputers EBCDIC – mainframe computers Unicode – International languages Examples : A – 0100 0001; 1 – 1111 0001
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5 Control unit Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) Registers store very small amounts of data and instructions for short periods of time The Central Processing Unit (CPU)
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6 Arithmetic-Logic Unit performs the instructions from instruction set: Data movement instructions Arithmetic operations Boolean logic operations Program flow instructions
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7 Computer Memory Registers store very small amount of data and instructions for very short periods of time Primary storage (Main memory) stores data, instructions, and operating system programs during program execution Secondary storage stores very large amounts of data for extended periods of time
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8 How the CPU Works? DECODE EXECUTE FETCH STORE Instruction THE MICROPROCESSOR CONTROL UNIT ARITHMETIC - LOGIC UNIT PRIMARY STORAGE (MAIN MEMORY) REGISTERS Instruction Result Data
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9 Machine Cycle Fetch – Decode – Execute – Store To synchronize the operation electronic pulses are generated Rate of these pulses is called clock speed The shorter the interval between pulses, the faster the computer
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10 Spheres of Software Influence the scope of problems and opportunities addressed by a particular information system: Personal Workgroup Enterprise
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11 Software Classification Systems software Application software
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12 Systems Software Controls and supports the computer system
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I&I_2_10 - CHAPTER 2 COMPUTER SOFTWARE (pp.64-65,...

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