Midterm 1 study guide - History 333 Midterm Study Guide...

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History 333 Midterm Study Guide Jacob Burckhardt: First modern historian of Renaissance Italy, lived during the 19 th century . Wrote “The Civilization of renaissance in Italy.” He rejects the notion of progress, but rather sees each period of the Renaissance distinctly. Sees elite as an open group to those with talent. Saw individualism as something central to Renaissance era and characteristic of the elite class. Also saw the Renaissance state as a work of art, being molded and created into a modern a secular state. Critique: Doesn’t speak of lower class, women, or economics Arengo: Also known as the concio. Part of the Northern Italian city-state communes beginning in late 11 th century. The arengo is all citizens with legal or constitutional power. They meet and try to proclaim who is going to be the leader. The arengo was the beginning of the movement away from magnates leading cities, because people demanded more autonomy. Contado : Area outside of the city walls, and the guelf and ghibelline parties rivaled over this territory. This resulted in towns fighting each other during 11 th and 12 th century . This is where the cities resources come from. Big part of the trend of expansionism: conquer contado first and then build city-state into becoming territorial power. Guelf/Ghibelline : Beginning in the 12 th century , there was confusion as to who was the leader, the Pope or the emperor. The Guelf party supported the papacy and were associated with mercantile leaders. The Ghibelline party supported emperor and were associated with the nobility. The parties fought each other or allied with each other, creating opposing or allied territory within and between the city-states. Podestà : Beginning in the 13 th century , a knight who was appointed by emperor because some sort of control was needed between rivaling and allied guelf/ghibellin parties. This was considered the first step towards despotism. The poedstá was given power for a short time, such as commander of the militia, chief of police, and chief judge. Podestá behaved as if above the law, but should have been a neutral figure. Popolo : In the 13 th century , it meant anyone who is not noble, and its chief defender was the pope. The group was led by merchants and professionals who created guild associations, in which all members were equal and they became a faction of the state. The popolo rose up in rebellion around 1200 through a republican movement. They wanted to bring about a new legislation that was anti-magnate and ebb out noble class’s monopoly in politics. Another goal was to create a stable economy through fiscal equality and the promotion of trade. Captain of the People: In Medieval Italy, very similar to despotic. They worked for the popular commune and were more aggressive in punishing nobles.
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