RU - Chapt 7 for students

RU - Chapt 7 for students - Chapter 7 Memory Memory Memory...

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Chapter 7 Memory
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Memory Memory is a general term for the  _________ , retention and  ________  of  events, information and procedures. Memory is a process by which we store and  ________  information. The  ____  to using your memory is that your brain  _______  loses anything.  Once a perception or thought is place into your memory, it  ______  there  forever.  What we call forgetting is either the  _________  to recall stored info, or the  failure to store info. Once info is stored in memory, it is never  _______________ . Forgetting tends to begin in seconds unless rehearsal is  permitted.
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Hermann Ebbinghaus’s Pioneering Studies of Memory Hermann Ebbinghaus studied his own ability to _________ new material He invented over 2300 ____________ syllables and put them into random lists. Over 6 years he memorized thousands of ______ of nonsense syllables. Lists and serial-order effects We tend remember the ____________ and end of a list of related items better than the middle. • The ___________ effect is the tendency to remember the beginning of the list. • The ___________ effect is the tendency to remember the items at the end of the list. Meaningfulness and distinctiveness Another feature of Ebbinghaus’ work is that he memorized nonsense syllables. Distinctive or unusual information is easier to _______ . The tendency of people to remember unusual items better than more common items is called the von Restorff effect .
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Figure 7.1 Figure 7.1 Hermann Ebbinghaus ___________ the scientific study of memory by observing his own capacity for memorizing lists of nonsense syllables.
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Dependence of memory on the method of testing ________ (or free recall) is the simplest method for the tester but the most difficult for the person being tested. To recall something is to produce it, as is done on essay and short-answer tests. It is a memory task in which the individual must reproduce material from memory without cue . ________ Cues - Young children depend on retrieval cues provided by adults than older children. Reminders or hints that help us to retrieve information from long-term memory are called retrieval ________ . _________ recall gives the person being tested significant hints about the correct answer. A fill-in-the-blank test uses this method. ___________ requires the person being tested to identify the correct item from a list of choices. Multiple-choice tests use the recognition method. It is a memory task in which the individual indicates whether presented information has been experienced previously. The savings ( ____________ ) method compares the speed at which someone relearns material against learning something new. The amount of time saved between the original learning and the relearning is a measure of memory.
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Table 7.1 Table 7.1 The ___________ between recall and cued recall
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All of the processes that were tested by Ebbinghaus involved
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RU - Chapt 7 for students - Chapter 7 Memory Memory Memory...

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