Chapter_18_Review_Questions - Chapter 18 Review Questions I...

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Chapter 18 Review Questions I. Asian Brown Cloud – a massive brown cloud of pollution that stretches nearly continuously along Bangladesh and the open sea east of the area A. 1/3: dust, smoke, and ash from drought and burning of forests for planting crops B. Rest: Acidic compounds, soot, and toxic metals (mercury) from the burning of coal, diesel, and other fossil fuels C. Effects: 1. Reduces photosynthesis, especially in China and India 2. Acids fall to the surface and damage trees and aquatic life in lakes 3. Helping warm the atmosphere D. Slowly expanding east (all the way to U.S.) II. Atmosphere’s Nature A. Layers 1. Air at sea-level has a higher density (molecules per liter) than air higher up a) Atmospheric Pressure – the force per unit area of a column of air (decreases with higher altitude) 2. Troposphere – layer closest to earth’s surface that is responsible for weather and climate a) 78% Nitrogen and 21% Oxygen 3. Stratosphere – contains the ozone layer (3 O 2 + UV == 2 O 3 ) a) Prevents 95% of UV from reaching earth’s surface b) Has less water vapor III. Air Pollution Problems A. Air Pollution – the presence of chemicals in the atmosphere in concentrations high enough to harm organisms, ecosystems, or human- made material 1. History a) Started with burning wood for warmth and cooking b) Industrial Revolution – burned coal i. Smoke and fog created smog B. Pollutants 1. Primary Pollutants – harmful chemicals emitted directly into the air from natural processes and human activities a) Ex: CO, CO2, SO2, NO, NO2 2. Secondary Pollutants – new harmful chemicals formed by the reaction between two primary pollutants a) Ex: SO3, H2SO4, H2O2, O3, HNO
C. Major Outdoor Air Pollutants 1. Carbon Oxides a) Carbon Monoxide (CO) i. From vehicle emissions Reduces bloods’ oxygen carrying ability ii. Carbon Dioxide 2. Nitrogen Oxides a) Nitric Oxide (NO) i. From vehicle emissions ii. Forms nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Reacts with water vapor to form nitric acid (HNO3) and nitrate salts (NO3-) from acid deposition b) Nitrous Oxide (N2O) i. From fertilizers ii. Irritates the eyes, nose, and throat 3. Sulfur Dioxide and Sulfuric Acid a) Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) i. 2/3 of it the atmosphere comes from combustion of sulfur-containing coal in electric power and industrial plants b) Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) i. Microscopic suspended droplets are called aerosols c) Aggravate breathing problems and can damage crops, trees, and aquatic life in soils 4. Particulates a)

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