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Unformatted text preview: What is an Information System (IS) and Technology (IT)?
SM 122 Professor Arnold Professor Shankar Professor Dixon Session agenda About IS and IT Why should we learn about IS/IT? Basic building blocks of an IS Various views of IT and IS What is information technology? Components of an IS What is a System? Every system has A set of inputs A set of processes A set of outputs Information System is a system first it accepts data, processes data, and create outputs processed data. What is an Information System? It is a combination of technology (specifically information technology), people, processes, procedures to Does not operate in isolation Capture, transmit, store, retrieve, manipulate, display, and consume data for the purpose of automating processes within an organization. No information system runs on its own! What is an Information System? Organizations create information systems to support one or more specific types of work Capturing transactions in a bank Figuring out how to target customers for promotions Figuring out how to improve manufacturing operations Reporting profits/losses to the government What is information? How is data different from information? Data is just raw facts Information is data that is processed to answer a question or solve a problem The system built to manipulate data/information to support a specific set of business tasks is an information system What is information technology? All of the technologies used to support an information system Hardware technology Software technology Communications technology The collection of technologies is referred to as IT Infrastructure An example...... Google and its IT/IS What does it do? Why did Google (the company) create their IT/IS (Google, the webthingy you all use) Who are the stakeholders? What are the inputs? What are the processes? What are the outputs? Do they understand the "future"? Building blocks of an IS Hardware Software Computers, printers, scanners, displays, storage devices, routers, modems, and all physical devices Instructions that tell the hardware what to do. System software and Application software A special category of hardware used for communication between information systems Communication technologies Building blocks of an IS Hardware Types of computers Personal computers (PCs) Laptops Palm tops Servers Clients Radio Frequency Identification tag (RFID) Apple iPhone? iPod? Building blocks of an IS Hardware Communication devices Cables Routers wired, wireless Gateways Wireless access points Base stations Network Interface Cards Is the Internet a "hardware"? Building blocks of an IS Software System software Application software Operating systems (e.g. MS Windows XP) Productivity application software Other Application software Security software Antivirus, spyware, firewall E.g. SAP, Oracle E.g., MSOffice Internet is this really a software? Building blocks of an IS Data This is the raw material Is the input Gets processed, stored, communicated Gets transferred In some way is also the output Building blocks of an IS People or stakeholders Creators of the system Custodians of the system Designed it, implemented it Who manage it and maintain it Consumers of the system Who use it for different purposes What does each consumer gain from the system? Building blocks of an IS Procedures Define how the system is managed Define how the data is managed and secured Define how business rules are managed Define how people who use the system are managed Understanding IS and IT As a business professional, you must be able to: Understand hardware, software, networks used by an IS Understand data that goes into an IS Understand the controls or procedures used to regulate the system Identify the stakeholders (people/roles/business units) Most important, understand how to leverage IT/IS to your advantage Views of IT/IS how has life changed? Shopping Photography and storing photos/pictures Getting directions/travel Dining out Dining in Banking and bill payments Getting news Education (tutoring/distance education) Many, many, more...including businesses and business operations! Views of IT/IS how has businesses changed? Global reach new markets & more competition Accessible 24/7 need to increase operations, more responsive and flexible Business partnerships easier to create/manage Operations made more efficient Advertising made simpler/easier and different Sharing data is easier/faster Changes in product offerings new products, competing channels IT has changed the IT industry the most Outsourcing, Offshoring, ASP, Web Services Web "presence" critical for business Is having a web site enough? You have to continuously manage: Where do your "users" come from? Reach and the Web Why web sites constantly change How users use your site (browse or buy) How users navigate your site ("routes")? How often do users "return"? There are many more measures to understand and improve your web site You can collect data on these measures (called Analytics) Countries, regions, timeofday, links from other web pages? Reach and Collaboration Being able to productively work with people anywhere, anytime 24/7 Easily share artifacts (document, pictures, sound tracks..) Take advantage of talent and cheaper labor React faster to customers and markets Coordinate your GLOBAL supply chain sitting in your spa. Attend meetings in shirt/tie (really, just that, no pants). Be in touch (text) with all your friends while listening to this lecture What is an organization's biggest asset? Data and the systems that process data Why? Use data to understand their business processes Use data to understand their suppliers & partners Use data to understand their customers Use data as a commodity for trade Use data to create more data! Key Takeaways None of this is possible without IS/IT IS is a system needs more than hardware and software to work well it needs YOU! IS has become critical for businesses and people There is no getting around IS To use it well, we need to understand it Key Takeaways A Business exists to create value Value is created by welldesigned, efficient, lean, potent business processes IT/IS can make business processes more efficient, lean, potent IT/IS can help design business processes IT/IS Rules Amazon, Ameritrade, Ask, AutoTrader, CarFax, ClubPenguin, Craigslist, Cocacola (oops), DisneyChannel, EBay, EHarmony,ETrade, Equifax, Expedia, Experion, Facebook, GoDaddy, Google, iTunes, LinkedIn, Kayak, KaZaa, LendingTree, Mapquest, Match,Napster, NetFlix, OED, Overstock, Peapod, Travelocity, YouTube, Vonage, WebKinz, WebMD, Yahoo!, Zillo.....just to name a few! And at the end... ...
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- Spring '09