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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3 Social Beliefs/Judgments The chapter focuses on four topics: social perception, judgments, explanations, and expectations. Today we'll focus on social explanations. Chapter 3 Social Beliefs/Judgments Runaway Human Brain Evolution: What caused it? Chapter 3 Social Beliefs/Judgments Many theories argue: The rapidly growing complexity of social cognition. Chapter 3 Social Beliefs/Judgments The "other minds" problem: What is he/she thinking? (in response to how I responded to his/her last response, etc. etc. etc.) To deal with the complexity: Shortcuts (heuristics) badly needed! Much of this chapter: "Shortcuts, and when shortcuts go wrong." To deal with the complexity: Shortcuts badly needed! Hopefully: The informed conscious self (i.e., you) can get the benefits while avoiding the pitfalls. The Ultimate Human Motive: For Control? One way to get control: Figure out who/what to blame when things go bad/wrong. Two Basic Types of Attribution: Internal attribution: It was something about the person. External attribution: It was something about the person's situation. Two Basic Types of Attribution: When explaining our own behavior: We tend to decide based on the outcome. Positive outcome: "I did it! I'm great!" Negative outcome: "My situation did it! Its not my fault!" Often called the Self-serving bias. Sadly, observers have the opposite bias! Fundamental Attribution Error: attributing causality to the person, overlooking his/her situation. Another way to say it: Correspondence Bias: We tend to think others' behaviors correspond to internal traits of theirs One classic experiment showing the FAE: FAE also holds for positive judgments. Q: WHY do we make the FAE? Q: WHY do we make the FAE? One answer: It's a shortcut that simplifies things and usually works. Q: WHY do we make the FAE? Another answer: It's an accident, that results from peoples' physical perspective on the situation. Q: WHY do we make the FAE? It turns out: FAE is "not so fundamental" after all. Less prevalent in Asian societies. When we take the time to think, we can and do overcome the FAE to make internal attributions. Kelley's theory: Tries to explain when we go one way versus the other Kelley's theory: Tries to explain when we go one way versus the other
High Consistency + Low Distinctiveness + Low Consensus = Internal attribution High Consistency + High Distinctiveness + High Consensus = External attribution Kelley's theory: Tries to explain when we go one way versus the other
By measuring these three factors, you can predict the outcome of jury trials, civil suits, and many other social judgment events What's the attribution? Fun Demonstration: Close your eyes, then trace a capital "E" on your forehead. Fun Final Demonstration: Q: Which way did you draw it so I can read it from out here, or so you can read it from in there? Fun Final Demonstration: This is a quick measure of Self Consciousness. SelfConscious people (like Asians) consider others' perspectives on things, and are less likely to make the FAE. ...
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- Spring '07