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Research - Today Research Methods In Social Psychology(Chpt...

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Today: Research Methods In Social Psychology (Chpt 1)
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Recall: Social Psychology is… “The scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another.”
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One Ad: “Rose Quartz Power Bead Bracelet, Rose Quartz Buddha Beads, Bead Bracelet. Stone of Gentle Love. Enhances Warmth and Affection.”
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How can we test controversial claims and ideas? (i.e., the “pink crystal” effect) Through careful research design
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One approach: Test correlations One approach: Test correlations Are couples who own more pink crystals more loving? Does degree of belief in the power of crystals correlate with longer-lasting marriages?
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Problem: With correlations, causality is Problem: With correlations, causality is ambiguous ambiguous
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Needed to Test Causality: A Controlled Experiment
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Needed to Test Causality: A Controlled Experiment
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Basic Logic: 1. In an experiment, only one thing is different between two conditions. 2. If the two conditions differ, it has to be because of that one thing.
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Important Steps in Designing an Experiment: 1. Formulate a testable hypothesis, which can be compared to a “null hypothesis.” ? ???
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Important Steps in Designing an Experiment: Muddy thinking here makes everything else meaningless.
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Important Steps in Designing an Experiment: 2. Decide who to study (sample selection).
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Important Steps in Designing an Experiment: Bad decisions here limit the generalizability of your results.
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Important Steps in Designing an Experiment: 3. Decide how to manipulate the “independent variable.”
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Important Steps in Designing an Experiment: Bad decisions here limit the meaningfulness of results.
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Important Steps in Designing an Experiment: 4. Decide how to measure the “dependent variable” (the outcome)
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Important Steps in Designing an Experiment: Bad decisions here limit the meaningfulness of results.
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Important Steps in Designing an Experiment: 5. Decide how to assign people to condition.
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Important Steps in Designing an Experiment: Random assignment, which equalizes people across conditions, is usually best.
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Random assignment assures all types get all “treatments.”
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