patrick paralyzed ppt - Why is Patrick Paralyzed? Learning...

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Why is Patrick Paralyzed?
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Learning Objectives: 1. Explain how energy is transferred through chemical reactions including the role of enzymes in this process. (Terms to know: endergonic and exergonic, difference in energy between ATP and ADP, catalyst, activation energy, substrate, product.) 2. Compare the three major steps in the breakdown of food for energy in terms of substrates and products. 3. Predict what would happen to the amount of product or substrate if an enzyme was not working. 4. Use knowledge of converging metabolic pathways to predict treatment options for a metabolic disease caused by a mutation in an enzyme in this pathway. 2
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Why did Patrick lose his ability to move? Patrick at 2: Patrick at 21: Movie in QuickTime (mov) 3
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Patrick’s History When Patrick was 16 years old, his hand started twitching as he picked up a glass at dinner. Five months later (in February 2001), he fell down the steps at his home and was unable to climb the steps to the bus. He went to the ER for his progressive weakness. At Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia he was initially diagnosed with a demyelinating disease. He was treated with anti-inflammatory drugs and antibodies for 2 years with no improvement. What was wrong with Patrick? 4
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What could be responsible for Patrick’s loss of mobility? A. His nervous system is not functioning properly. B. His muscles are not functioning properly. C. He cannot efficiently break down food for energy. D. All of the above are possible causes. 5 Clicker Question 1
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Why do nerve and muscle cells need energy? Synthetic work = building macromolecules (e.g., Making protein) Mechanical work = moving molecules past each other (e.g., Muscle shortening) Concentration work = creating chemical gradients (e.g., Storing glucose) Electrical work = creating ion gradients (e.g., Unequal distribution of sodium and potassium ions) 6
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What is energy? Potential Energy = stored energy Chemical bonds Concentration gradients Electrical potential Kinetic Energy = movement energy Heat = molecular motion Mechanical = moving molecules past each other Electrical = moving charged particles 7
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Exergonic Reactions “Energy out” Starting substances (reactants) have more potential energy in chemical bonds than final substances (products). Example: ___________________________. Spontaneous Matter : Energy: glucose Exergonic High potential energy Low potential energy Energy released (mostly as heat) 8
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Endergonic Reactions “Energy in” § Starting substances (reactants) have less energy than final substances (products), Example:_________________________. § Spontaneous Matter : Energy: glucose Endergonic High potential energy Low potential energy Energy required (from solar energy in plants) 9
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Cycling between stored chemical versus movement energy Stored chemical energy must be released Processes that RELEASE energy Allow ATP production Catabolic/ Exergonic
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This note was uploaded on 02/07/2012 for the course BIOL 1103 taught by Professor Armstrong during the Fall '07 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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patrick paralyzed ppt - Why is Patrick Paralyzed? Learning...

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