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Chapter 11 Human Development

Chapter 11 Human Development - 23:31 Chapter 11 Human...

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23:31 Chapter 11 Human Development  Developmental Psychology: the study of changes in physiology, cognition, and social  behavior over the life span.  Teratogens: environmental agents that harm the embryo or fetus. Includes drugs,  alcohol, bacteria, viruses, and chemicals.  Fetal alcohol syndrome: symptoms of which consist of low birth weight, face and head  abnormalities, slight mental retardation, and behavioral and cognitive problems.  Newborns are born with various basic reflexes that aid survival. Perhaps you have  observed the grasping reflex when a baby held your finger.  Rooting reflex:  the turning and sucking that infants automatically engage in when a  nipple or similar object touches an area near their mouths.  Synaptic pruning: a process whereby the synaptic connections in the brain that are  frequently used are preserved, and those that are not are lost.  Myelination: neurons in the visual cortex develop more and more myelination as the  infant’s brain ages.  Synaptic density: the highest levels of density can be thought of as the times when the  brain is most plastic-most able to change around ages 1-3. After adolescence the  density levels off and remains relatively constant.  Critical periods: biologically determined time periods for the development of specific  skills.  Sensitive periods: biologically determined time periods when specific skills develop most  easily. 
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Attachment: a strong emotional connection that persists over time and across  circumstances. Infant attachment leads to heightened feelings of safety and security Lorenz walks the goslings that had imprinted themselves on him. The little geese  followed Lorenz as if her were their mother.  Harlow’s Monkeys and Their “Mothers” One mother was made of cloth and looked like a monkey, but could not give milk. The other was made of wire, but could give milk.  The monkeys clung to the cloth mother and went to it for comfort in times of threat. The  monkeys approached the wire mother only when they were hungry.  Infant monkeys will prefer an attachment to a surrogate mother that provides warmth  and comfort over a wire surrogate mother that provides milk.  Secure attachment: attachment style for a majority of infants, who are readily comforted  when their caregiver returns after a brief separation.  The strange situation test shows a secure child, an avoidant child, and an  anxious/ambivalent child.  Avoidant attachment: attachment style in which infants ignore their caregiver when he or  she returns after a brief separation. 
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