Chapter 2 - Lets Review Section Pg 24 The Tools of...

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Lets Review Section Pg. 24 The Tools of Quantitative Chemistry Copper conducts electricity (wires) and heat (pots) well. Also copper is a coinage metal along with silver. It is one of the eight essential metals in our bodies needed for enzymes to use oxygen more effectively. Mass in kilogram (kg) Length in meter (m) Time in second (s) Temperature (Kelvin) K Amount of substance in mole (mol) Electric Current in ampere (A) 1000 g = 1 kg 1 x 10^9 nm = 1 m 10 mm =1 cm 100 cm = 10 dm = 1 m 1000 m = 1 km Selected Prefixes in the Metric System Giga- (G) 10^9 (billion) Ex: 1 gigahertz = 1 x 10^9 Hz Mega- (M) 10^6 (million) Ex: 1 megaton = 1 x 10 ^6 tons Kilo- (k) 10^3 (thousand) Ex: 1 kilogram (kg) = 1 x 10 ^3 g Deci- (d) 10^-1 (tenth) 1 decimeter (dm) = 1 x 10 ^-1 m Centi- (c) 10^-2 (one hundredth) 1 centimeter (cm) = 1 x 10 ^-2 Milli- (m) 10 ^-3 (one thousandth) 1 millimeter ( mm) Micro (u) 106-6 (one millionth) Nano- (n) 10^-9 (one billionth) Pico- (p) 10^-12 Femto- (f) 10^-15 0 K = -273.15 C ABSOLUTE ZERO William Thompson or Lord Kelvin The boiling point of pure water is 373.15 C
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T (K) = 1K/1C (T in C + 273.15 C 1 liter (L) = 1000 cm ^3 = 1000 mL = 0.001 m^3 1 mL = 0.001 L = 1 cm ^3 THE UNITS MILLILITER AND CUBIC CENTIMETER ARE INTERCHANGEABLE. A flask that contains 125 mL has a volume of 125 cm^3 1 L = 1 dm ^3 Mass 1 kg= 1000g and 1g = 1000 mg Lets Review Chapter 2 Precision: how well several determinations of the same quantity agree Accuracy: agreement of a measurement with the accepted value of the quantity Experimental Error Error= experimentally determined value- accepted value Percent Error Percent Error= error in measurement/accepted value x 100% Standard Deviation: A series of measurements is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the deviations for each measurement from the average divided by one less than the number of measurements. STEPS 1. First find average mass 2. Then square that number and only take the first significant number. 0.006 squared is 3.6e-5 then to 4e-5. 3. Even though the determination is 5 you take one less which is 4. You add all the standard deviations which in this case is
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26e-5. Then the final standard deviation will be the square
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