#20 - The Persuasive Process

#20 - The Persuasive Process - 208 errAv'r‘rrrr r, | The...

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Unformatted text preview: 208 errAv'r‘rrrr r, | The Persuasive Process Sparks, a l’urdne undergraduate, designed an innovative children’s net. l [is creation, Soy—Yer Dough, is a soy—based modeling clay for chil— 'l'his is revolutionary because the most popular modeling clays for hirer] contain wheat. Children with wheat allergies cannot play with the tional Play—D011 products. Sparks saw first—hand how children can be left V out when they aren’t able to play with the traditional modeling clays. One of his favorite professors at Purdue has a daughter with a wheat allergy that pre— vents her from playing with this traditional modeling clay. So, Sparks created this product for her. Soy—Yer Dough took off and was experiencing high Internet sales. How— ever, Sparks was having difficulty keeping up with orders from his mother’s kitchen. So, he began seeking investors to assist him in taking his product to the next level. Soon, he received an invitation from ABC to appear on its series Shark Tank. Shark Tank allows entrepreneurs to pitch their ideas to venture capitalists who may invest in their ideas. The contestants on Shark Tank must craft an extremely tight presenta- tion persuading these venture capitalists to invest in their product. They have a limited amount of time in which to make the persuasive appeal ofa life— time, so every element in their presentations must have high impact. They must also engage in an intense question-and—answer session. Some of the contestants are well prepared and some fall flat on their faces. Sawyer Sparks was one of the impressive ones. In fact, his presenta— tion was one ofthe most successful pitches in Shark Tank history. Sparks was offered $300,000 for a share of 51% of his business with three of the venture capitalists. He took the deal and is now building a production facility in his home town where he can employ members of his own community, which was one of his goals. Sawyer Sparks didn’t get lucky. He had a good product, but more impor— tant, he had done his homework. He prepared a solid presentation and was able to answer the tough questions during the show. In the end, he was able to persuade the investors to take a chance on him. Check out his presenta— tion on YouTube. You can also see other persuasive presentations that didn’t go so well. I'lach day we deliver numerous persuasive messages to our friends, fam— ily, and aulnaintances. We may try to convince friends to go to llre movie we want to see or cat at our favorite restaurant. We rrray try to convince a professor to give the class an extension on ilre class project. We usually have to convince a boss ol the need lor iilnc oil to study loI an exam or to travel out ottown. /\|| ot us engage in numerousr penruasive attempts like those just described each iilltl evt‘li' Ilrii. Home oi these attempts at persuasion are snc eesstrrl. and some don't him not re. well as we might have lll\t'(l, l'elsuasion is r ‘44 t ' -. 'r ‘r l. l. A l IIIII-Ihg-un r9 m .t/ ir .ii‘r The Persuasive Process | (lllAt”|‘t-'.|{ r; 209 one oilhe rrrosl important skills you can develop as a connnrnricatol'. To help crrsrrre srrceess in this arena, it is imperative that you have a lirnr understand— ing of the persuasive process and its underlying principles. Persuasion, how— ever, is a difficult task. When crafting a persuasive message, there are many~ things to consider and employ. This chapter is designed to lay out some oi the basic issues of the persuasion process so that this task may seem a brt IItUl‘t‘ manageable. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INFORMATIVE AND PERSUASIVE PRESENTATIONS lielor'e we discuss persuasive strategies and theories, 1t rs unportant‘ that you understand the differences between informative and persuasive speaking. This will enable you to choose the best set of strategles for your speaknrg situation. Persuasive Speakinq Asks the Audience to Choose Between Two or More Alternatives x\-. mentioned earlier in the text, in an informative speech, a speaker acts as .r tear her. As a ieaclrcr, a presenter simply explains a particular pomt of View or presents irrlornration on a topic. In persuasive speaking, the task becomes -- I I I I X‘ .‘ \ ‘\‘| \ |V'AL\‘() more complex. In addrtrorr to rlhnnmatrng thc topic, the presenter must rls Notico how the 'itil'dhi‘l in trying to identity wrllr irru audience in this neruuaniw presentation try illit‘r‘dtir] (town and Werllturi lrhrlv. In this way, he is hoplnri that his .‘rnrtieure teel'. urrrrriar to trim and hopelnilv he. lrllur'. 210 211 Process (LIIAII'I'IIR () (ill/\I'i‘rzii i) t The Persuasive Process The Persuasive I act as a leader. You are asking your audience to do Iiiore than inst learn and understand issues on a specific topic; you are also asking them to adopt a position on the issue. For example, there isn’t much controversy on a speech about the history of reproductive rights in the United States. ttowcver, II speech advocating human cloning as a choice for reproduction is highly vol- iitilc. in this example, a persuasive speaker’s primary goal is to convince the audience to agree with his or her position. /\tttilll(‘| pait ol \’ttttl Iesponsibility is to ensine that vom supportuig ev'lldeneo is ol the highest quality. Are your experts qualitied? /\I'e yoin stalls us a to ItiiteI’ Itave \'ou veiitied your intornialion in Inore than inst one soupu Asking \‘Utit audience to make changes or coninnliiicnts based on (lttllcisttttlll ‘ Iitile t'\’ltli'tt('(' is unethical. /\s an ethical speaker, It Is your I‘espousi )I fly it .. ' . ,1 t'tt'itltt‘ that the appeals you make are reasonable and III the best tllt( icsti \Iittl audience, - I . ‘ _ R w “1k” * Now lll‘lt you haVc a “it” grasp ot the characteristics ot IX IsuasIVL spi. 7‘: i it a i " ‘ I ) /()l|t’ lit}! "1"! t‘\t|ll|llt(‘ tlt(‘ |)t’t)(‘(‘h‘8 ()l PL‘I'SIHISIOH tltl(i ll()W you (.(Ill Il])l)|y ll l( .I ,II in Persuasive Speaking Demands More Thorough Audience Analysis in ’3 pieueiiialion. Iit‘ Because persuasion relies so much on attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors, it is imperative that a persuasive speaker know as much about how a particular audience feels about an issue as possible. lfyou are a sales representative for Microsoft pitching your proposal on incorporating a new computing system into an organization, you need to know what types ofattitudcs and beliefs the organization holds about Microsoft prior to the presentation. tfthc conipanv W, WM!“ IS PERSUASION? III. I t ' * " " ' "' " ‘.’:|tt|t|l(‘ tn Iltlli‘t to tie stlct'cssttll at persuasive speaking, It Is iIinoit.IIit to n th. Iletinitioii ot persuasion itsctt. |"or the purposes in this course, '— IIIiI lie deiined .‘is the process ot chang- ing, l uniting, oi Icintoicing an altitude, belict, pi ps1 |,I\\|( )N IAN yir’l I“ In lN'lIIHIHI III | tNI II ,~\s t||| Itxt n .. (it t tl/\t\ltitNti.t tit I'\| ll lt -. till t«'.t it‘ll t )lit ilbdkl /\t‘t /\t ttttlttt. liilt||,tttl Hun til the Hunt Important aspects ot lliisdetiiii-~ tit tt/'\\ It its ' . t 7 lililttltllittpetsnantoni~.;ipioeess(l\1ili(I, I )7._). ‘ ' People an iItiI-h pciuuaIlI-d In one shot. it usually takes multiple nussagts had invested substantial time and money in a competitor’s products, then the presentation should have a different focus than ifit had experience with Microsoft products. This might further be complicated by how positive oi negative those experiences had been. Persuasive speakers simply must know I”, I I... t it their audience well and prepare their presentations accordingly. Th. Procul of Persuasion t It Persuasive Speaking Makes More Demands of an Audience I I Whereas informative presentations ask audiences to understand something, persuasive presentations go a step further. The persuasive speech asks audi enccs to do or change something as a function of that Inidc Iiiore difficult. People are often skeptical and resist Mitt itiltlttple Mpn'ane'. to a message in order to persuade a pai'tIcntaI titl(l|‘ 'i pave the hillnutmi example \\ill illuminate this teatIII‘e ot the detnntloii. , ’ I I .III littttflttte that ion Me It sales iepiesentatiw Iiiaking a pitch to illtt. nails)?“ if: Mitt #itfittl A iiitteu Iep tittt‘i\' has only one chance at persuaduig | it ( it II. Usually. Witt Iiiiupum‘ utll make Iiinttipte pre ‘ ' ' \H )N H A H“ N ‘I ‘1“ Wtdittitihaettilhmknpdnemnents,andengage I t bot /\ I if“ multiple innwnaltons with Lev players ‘ I "I . “I “at.” "Mt Ittgantmlton below it decision is iczietied. I'Iaeti ot t t( (I ornn gag “Milt.” HEN"! \ch litt‘t “tail is a peisnasive attempt While we Wt I ocus op , * WWWIQIWE pieseutiition ttuelt. It is important lot you as a spiaikei‘lo'nilot, 3? all! Midi thin tiiewllhlttnit l‘i Inst one ot many tools you or yoni oiganI/a Ion Will hi "slag in petnltaile the I lll‘tii I ’ V ‘ I, lH Etltltttnn in timing itittlttph' opportunities to peisnade :i t.',ll\‘(‘|il.|tttt 2 “WE. titfi iifltittttlnti Itluu tlnpiten that peI'IuasIon Is accomplished Incili I‘tl‘t ul ’3 W. “it Will lithe little um i we: it you push toi vom ultimate goal on t It Hnsl Wt” éfiéttitit You have to luv the gionndwoik and move slowly low-m rstanding. this is ant to change. they ottcn do not see reasons to Change their behavior or beliefs. Because of this, they have to process your information more carefully, evaluating th ' arguments and appeals in your message against the information and be When it becomes apparent that your go ‘i tiets they hold. at is to change their beliefs. they will in evaluating your message. Ill need to take Inore time than otherwise it Persuasive Speaking Has a Higher Ethical Threshold lit Wtien asking the andienee to change a behavioi (it to support a ptutlt'u tar position, you are assuming Lttl iiiipoitaiit iesponsi'tiiiitv. age youi audience to Vote lot it ptnticntin candidate you must really know that this Hittiiltltlit‘ will he the Ill It you enennr I‘t' toI student government. best person tor the tub. I I lltdlfl ‘ I‘ ,“t I.I lit' i i ‘ i ii i l WI ‘ iIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII I at —-Iw wrists“... t T Persuasive Process ill/\l"t'l".tt 213 212 CHAPTERQ | The Persuaslvo Procul h. l ( " . . . . _ shootings. ()thel experts say these games haw a minimal elteet. l'iaeh ot your ultunate goal. Seeklng too much 111 one persuasive attempt Will Intel: 4 - - v -. , . . . . . . these Iespeetive experts has researeh to bail up the elaun. /\11 audienees hrc. (rounder how thls works 1n real llfe. lmagme that you are lI'VIIIH to per " 1 . , . . . . . .. . . . . , heliet eoneernmg tlus elaun Wlll rest Will! the side they lltl(l most eonvule suade your parents to buy you a new car. Slmply commgr down to dinner one , . — . — . . u . ,, . . , , 11111,. llele are some examples ot behcts: evemng and asking, Dad, w11l you buy me a car? w1ll probably result In 1| 7 1 less—tiuni—successful outcome However, ifyou gradually build tl1eai'igulneuta ii I ll" MMR Vtm'tttc “Ht-“C3 311115111- tor why you need a new car, your parents will be more likely to hear your ease I: /\llells ll‘om outer space v1s1t luarth 011a regular basis. ‘ I l ' i I V v ' 71 ‘I \ ' I A 1 r ‘ \ ‘ and thmk about what you are requestmg. task 11mg to Mo/au s music Will make you smcutu, H1656 reallzatlons can help You deVelOP Sl‘i‘tcg'cs l‘” “"""l"'t~'. "W" ltetielsare usually well~establishcd and dittieultto change. Inordcr toehange ‘ ' ‘ ' ‘ ’7 . x . .A 1 1. y i - 1 - “ ' ' ' ' CHUCUVC Presentatlons- Rewngng that You do“ l lbw“ l” WV“ ‘ “ '\ ll”"t'« an audience s bchel on any partleular toplc, you Wlll have to present convme— in one persuasive attempt ensures that the presentation can be more targeted In}, (.Vidmwc (Irishman 1967) ,, , . i , . and strategic. Attitudes Targets of Persuasion ,'\s diseussed in (Ihaptcr 2, an is an individual’s evaluation ot :111 ohieet, event, person, policy, and so forth. (lt‘ishbein ($1 Aizen, W79). /\tti— One of the most important elements to consider when constructing a peisua . , . . . ludes attach a positive or negatlve evaluahon onto a beliet. So, our beliefs underlie our atti— All I it t | )t .\ Al |/\t ‘|| /\ tudes, Attitudes are learned and enduring evalu— l’t tot lilVl ( tli NI t li/\l Wt alums ot things that affect our behavior. People erAl “M l‘ ’N “N It ‘ A It" I ll l .ue highly motivated to act in ways that are con— '.t‘.li‘|lt with theiraltitudes toward those things (Festinger, 1957). Because peo— ple want their attitude toward something to be consistent with their behavior, lher will change their attitude to accommodate the behavior (l'iagly & (Ihai— Iu‘u. l‘t‘ttl. sivc message or presentation is your . Inst exactly what do you want the audience to think, feel, or do? As a speaker, you must decide it yom pen by...” 1 ‘1""1 1.. 1‘1 1" 1A 1 1 1 1 suasive presentation will target your audience’s beliefs, attitudes, or behar iors. l‘iaeh of these targets interacts with each other in complex ways. lieliels underlie attitudes, and attitudes underlie behaviors (lt‘ishbein, l‘}()7; Kim A“ l Mater, 1993). In order to increase the likelihood ofaehicving your peisua sivc goal, it is important to understand how these three relate to eaeh other I et’s examine each of these targets in more detail. Beliefs 1" /\ is a cognition held by an individual concerning the truth or tat , I; sity of a claim or the existence or reality of something (Perlott, ZtltR), Il'oi , The woman tn the. ( tltWIl is reintou inu lltt‘ .llltlltilI‘H. tJetiets, and lu-havnu x ml this suppoitive aorta-111 It exa111plc, some individuals in the medical community believe a series ot vae cinations given in early childhood is leading; to ,\ 131 111 [1 |\ A (j()r;N||‘10N an increase in autism. ()11 the other hand, there | H | |1 m" AN 1N|)1V| In ]/\| are many individuals in the medieal eonnnuuity t tttult 't ttNtNti lttli tttt J'l‘ll who think this claim is talse. 'l‘here is evidenee Hit t./\| "\l I 1 i )t /\ (it /\| M (Ht that can be presented torboth sides ol‘this elaim. till i \'t\ t | Ni 't ()R Rt /\| l t Y ()ue i111porta11t l-eature about beliels is that i (it N that Ilthlu they eannot be proven or disproven tor eellain. 'I'heie is always a degree (it lltl<‘l‘lltlllll\" assoei aled with beliels. ( tthel pouil‘. ol \‘iew a1e possible and deteudablia ( li1tlhtili‘l this i'lailn: Violent \‘tilt‘li 15.11111". .Ill' eau'dny. oiu eouuliv's youth to heeome llloH' violent, there in i‘\'lt|t‘lll‘l‘ that l'tltlltl lu' luesellletl both to: and against this etiiilu. Some expeiln llltlll that the ltlt'li‘HM’tl violence in these names alleels the behavior at ilitliheu and haw led lueveuts litet|1e(toluuiliiue 214 (ItlAt"l'lv'.tt () | The Persuastvo Procul Here are some statements that reflect attitudes~as you can see, they each attach a positive or negative evalrratiorr to the topic: :: 'I'he MMR vaccine is a risky vaccine. :2 Space aliens are dangerous to the human species. Mozart is the best composer of the Classical Period. While we are ambivalent toward some attitudes, others are cstrenreh‘ important to us. For instance, while most people may prefer to drink either (Joke or Pepsi, they will often drink the other if their favorite is unavailable. 1 Iowever, most people are not so laekadaisical about their attitude toward an issue srreh as abortion. When persuading people to change their evaluation of something, speakers need to factor in how important or strongly held an audience’s existing attitudes are (Sherif& Sherif, 1967). Also, people do rrol always behave in ways that are consistent with attitudes. Although they may be motivated to do so, there may be obstacles that prevent thenr from aelriev irrg attitrrde—behavior consistency. For instance, a person may hold the atli trrde that Mercedes automobiles are the best cars to own, yet only be able to afford a Ford Focus. Behaviors are observable actions. The behaviors we choose to erracl are largely based on the beliefs and attitudes we hold. As mentioned previously, there is a strong link between beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. We try not to engage in behaviors that we do not value or that are in opposition to the beliefs and attitudes we hold (Festinger, 1957). Most of our persuasive attempts target tkt t t.r‘r\.‘ it tlv‘fx .~\llt UbSt'RVAt‘st l: behavior. We are bombarded by messages that AC i It )NS- attempt to persuade us to alter our behavior, for example, to buy a particular product or vote for a specific candidate. The daily attempts you make at persuasion are primar— ily targeted toward behaviors. You might try to persuade your parents to con— tribute toward your spring break vacation or persuade your roorrrrrrate to go on a blind date. Although your primary goal may be to achieve sorrre behavioral out- come, you rrray not be able to achieve this goal in a single persuasive pre— sentation. Sometimes we have to focus on one of the rrrrderlying beliefs or attitudes tirst, and inercruentatlv build toward a behavioral change in an audience. Asa speaker, you cannot underestimate the important relationship between our beliets. attitudes. and behaviors. IIIIIIIIVV\rrrxrrrrm Tho Porsuaslve Process err/\rvrrut o Goals of Persuaslon ()ncc you have selected a target for your persuasive presentation, you rnrrst decide on the best goal for your partierrlar needs. 'l'hcre are three primary von can have in a persuasive message: you can seek to create, rein» torec, or change an attitude, belief, or behavior. Let’s further examine each of these goals so that you can get a better understanding of the process. Creating Sometimes an audience will have no established beliefs, attitrrdes, or behav- iors regarding a particular issue. For example, Arrrericarrs had few altitudes or behaviors concerning terrorism on US. soil before September ll, Zillll. However, after that day, President Bush worked diligently to create altitudes and behaviors consistent with his plan for increased homeland security. 'I'odav, Americans’ attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors toward security are rrruclr stronger and more sophisticated than in the past. the goal of many advcrlisirrg campaigns usually involves new behels, attitudes, and behaviors. Several years ago, Procter 81 Camblc intro tltlt ed the Switlcr duster. Initially, i had no beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors torrceming this new product. After watching commercial after commercial. being bombarded with coupons, and overbearing people in the grocery store talk about how great this ncw product worked, I bought a Swiffer and all ol tltr supplies neeessarv to rrrake it work. 'I'be advertisers had been success hrl l'lrer raprlali/cd on beliefs I already had, srrclr as “My lrorrre slrorrld be r lean " 'l'be\ lt)||\’ttl(‘(‘(l me that their product would help achieve a cleaner home and thus created a new behavior—buying the product. Nutnlrm mu .‘mrurtuueu it is Important that We the beliefs, attitudes, and behav- turn that pmplr .rbeadr bold (see ( Ihaptcr 2). Consider Srrrrday sermons. 't'lrc pulpnva rrl lltt 'rr' nrcssagcs is usually not to change or create, brrt to make the audio nu mun- devout and to strengthen those beliefs, attitudes. and bchav-- tut'r thrw alumnh bold You have likely heard oftlre phrase “Preaching to the IIIHH " l'olrtrcraus .rre well aware of this phcrrorrrerrorr. l'ivcr'y rally and fundw rinsing erent |he\ hold is primarily conccrncd with reinforcing their follow tru‘ torunrrtnrent l'iVetl though lolloWers are already committed, they need to la n urnrdcd ol whv. So even when you hch won over an audience, you still ban to work on keeping lhenr persuaded 'I'his particular goal highlights Hi: In: rrruerrtal nature ol persuasion. Audiences are rarely persuaded in one 215 216 CHAPTER 9 l The Persuasive Procul srrrglc attempt. Fhey must be exposed to the persuasive atterrrpt again and agarir before persuasmn occurs and, certainly, in order to irrakc it cudni iiiii. Changing a persuasive target is usually what we associate Willi persuasion: getting PC computer users to switch to Macintosh eomprrters, getting Reprili licaris to vote Democrat, getting pro—lifers to become pro—choice. eren t teach this course, students always get excited aborrt llrc pcisnri sive assigiunent because they want to change the way the audience thinks or behaves. While changing persuasive targets is important, it is not always real istic. Some beliefs and attitudes are held very strongly by individuals. and they are very resistant to change. After conducting a tlrororrgli audience anal ysis (see Chapter 2 for these methods), you will be able to delerrninc your audience’s attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. You may evcir be able to discern how strongly they hold these attitudes and beliefs. (liven this intonnatioii. you may be able to determine how much latitude a particular aridieucc lttl‘i tor rrrovemeut in the direction you are advocating. Any of the goals just discussed are appropriate For your classroorrr pic sentatioiis. You need to be cognizant of your sitrralioir and your audience, and choose those goals that you might be able to accomplish in the amount ot time allotted for your presentation. these types of situational constraints should influence the decisions you make about targets and goals. Now that you have a better understanding ot just what persuasion is. ttrere are two persuasive theories, the l'ilalmration Likelihood Model ttttit Social Judgment Theory, that can add insight as you begin to plan your pci srrasivc presentation. Let’s take a look at each ol‘tlrcse perspectives. THE ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL Ru hard lctty and John Cac10ppo, two social psychologists. have developed it way tor rrs to better understand persuasion by examining an audience's riirrtl vatiorr and knowledge concerning a given topic. the ‘ proposes that there are two "routes" to persuasion. depending on how motivated and able the audience is to process the tutor matron ttl your prescnlatiorr (l‘ctty d' (tacioppo, WH-l). relates to the extent an audience will think about your riiessagc. \yliile iclcis to the probability that they will or will not think about oi elaborate on the ideas you present. So in a nutshell the the oiys primary concciii ts rtetcrriiiniug lttit’t’ rrrriclr your audience will lttttlti ltl ti 1 . it til ttlr ttt .tll ’rrr' vir- it til i til lltir tllrti .‘Ittr ii I‘II‘III I I . ‘ r in,“ II ii IIII l‘I rill “ ttt‘ ltt. rt' r it a li’ r The Porsuaslve Process | (tttAt"l'lI'.lt o 217 about the ideas you present. In order tor this to happen, IWo things must be present: your aridicuce must be motivated to process your message, arid they must be able to process your message. It' your aridierrcc irrerrrbers don’t rnrderstand the major tenets ot irarrolcclrrrology, it really doesn’t mat- ter trow motivated they are by your topic. They simply won’t be able to think or elaborate on rnrirr /\t’\t r‘Wo'irrrrrris” 'r‘ora1irsriAsroN. t)tit‘til\tt)tt\tti 0N now Mrri‘iV/x'rro ANI) Arrii rnr ArioriaNer‘ is to Hotel ss 'i'ni-i iNr-orrrvr/r'rroN IN \‘r rrrrr rargsiiNi'A'r roN. yrilli irressage iir sophisticated ways because they don't have the knowledge necessary to do so. According to the ELM, there are two "routes" or avenues to persuasion: the central rorilc and the peripheral route. the is characterized by lriglr tcycts ot critical thinking. Messages are carefully analyzed, and your mate— It.ll will be related to intormation the audience already knows. Audiences engaged in the central rorrtc think about the implications of your messages .rrrd are extremely thorough in their analysis ofyour material. the , on the other hand, is characterized by less elab— or.itron. Your rrrcssagcs will be evaluated (prickly, and your audience will rely on simple cries or decision rrrles to evaluate your argruneut or message. are mental shortcuts. When an audience lacks the ability or motivation to carelulty cxarrrinc your ideas, they rely on decision rules. .‘to, instead ot cznctrilly critiquing your argument or ideas, they rely on all or 'rritltr' ot the tottowing: Your cicrlibitity on the issue \orn tttnttttlltV as it speaker the number ot arguments you rise the length ot \oni arguments the perception ol otlrcr arrdieirce members toward the ttti'trt'ttldltiill Air l'Mttltttlt‘ that we used iii (tlrapter 2 can help illustrate the t‘it.M iiirrir r leriily tiirrrgiuc that you are in an audience where the need tor irreiiii iliriirgc» in HIV c.rlcteri;i ot West l,alaycttc ltiglr School is being presented. the m liorrl horrid is iccoirrirrcriding that all vending machines be removed lioiu tlic tili‘ttlt‘rr”. Although you attended this high school, you are now a limliinrrn ill t'rurlnc. You :rrcn't triglrly motivated to critically think about being presented because the changes won’t alleet you. While tlrr rugnirrcrriu arguments are important, you are irrore likely to be persuaded girrut ltiitlr iltlll hi I‘ttttttlttlldl .ippcats. the speaker's credibility. and the rest ot the audience's tr'iiittoil i till 218 (:iiAivuiii l) | The Persuasiv. proc." The Persuasive Process | (:ltAi"t'|I‘.|i () 219 ~7 ' SPOTLIGHT on RESEARCH 7.; M. ONE SIDED VERSUS TWO SIDED MESSAGES . _' I - Persuasive Message V} I / 7 I , /\ iiiltttrlihtti message simply presents your posi- However, time constraints and other environ : ” limit on a particular topic, while a two-sided mental Factors sometimes get in the way, ("Hi Is the audience MOTIVATED No Were peripheral cues present? 7 I _1 irro:.:.<igo presents your position along with your it isn’t always teasible to present both :.iilo'. and ABLE to process the -—> ' Speaker Credlbltltv I» opponent's position on the issue. Thereiore, a at an issue plus a rebuttal. It this is lllt! ((130, "1955399? : Entertainan gr I IWosiried message presents a very balanced simply present your own position. A Otiohirliirl lYes ' I WNW at the issue. A spin on the twasided mes- message is a more persuasive strategy than it wire is the twasicled rebuttal message. it presents two—sided message with no rebuttal. So it Y1 in Was the message Efféctive? Yes No ‘ your position, your opponent's position, and then have the option, always present a twosirlorl : 2233;93:353'ty " ’ roliitos your opponent's position. But, which of message with a rebuttal. It this is not po:.:.ililo, , Etc. tlimo three approaches is most ettective or most simply present the one-sided message. ; " iintfitmsivee Several metaanalyses have been iYes i No 1 ‘ “ilt‘lUCled exploring this lSSUe» This reseOFClt lids Allen, M. ll QQl ). Meta-analysis comparing tho ‘I rtntnrrnined that two-sided reiuted messages are persuasiveness ol onesided and two-sided “martini. “ the most persuasive types at messages. That is, Western journal of Speech Communr'mir'i II], 5.6, E ’ prosonting your own arguments along with your 390—404. =.. r opponent's arguments and then refuting your O'Keerel Di (roooi Howio handiuoppmrm . '7 opponents position is the mOSt petSUOStVe SltOl' arguments in persuasive messages: A mutooiiolylti central Raffle to Perlpheral RPUte to g I" (*5 1y you can employ. Theretore, the retutational review of the ettects at onersicled and lWUfihllttl Persuas'on Persuas'on pattern suggested in this chapter is optimal. messages. Communication Yearbook, 7?, 70‘) Mt) (Adapted from Petty 81 Caciopppo, 1984) , V , i to think critically, the central route to persuasion would be the most appro— Yonr neighbor, Who is a senior at the local high school, would feel dillcr— if , H mm ( “(XL “in? lobglc. WOUld bte :Sseiftlall; Evfldetnce frolnlllhlghly mildl- . . . . . I r i (' sources wou ( a so 6 1m ortan . not let 6 ac or W011 C )c )l‘CSCii 11] r or itly. Because the menu changes would directly affect him, he is highly inot i~- 7 " . , p I y 1 £7 . . . two SlilHl messages w1th rebuttals (see Spotlight on Research). vatcd to be critical of the messages. The speaker Will want to take the ccnlral , r _ H l H t d, , 1 t, t d U I 1 l , , . . . . I i iou sus )ca 13 our au icnce 13 CSS mo iva 6 am or 1111a) c 'o no— routc With an audience full ofmvolyed, motivated members, like your lit‘lgli- \ l , y , , , l bor. Good logical appeals will be extremely important. The audience will l)(' . ~ “u” "m" ""'l“‘l"1l::ltklk€ gliierbliiherabroute. Fgcus p11 billl(}lllg ailid cphrn‘ir:I . . . . til' 'Htll i-ri'iiiii an 1 a 11 . se em010na ancas an( cxcnux incntally questionlng all of the ideas the speaker presents. If these questions l' ll I y ty 1 1 . . . . . Iti|t|.‘| n'v (‘Mllli ) cs. arcn’t answered, it IS unlikely that the audience Wlll be persuaded. » H I l d, h , , d _ , , 1 f I I I’crsuasion that is achieved through the central route is enduring. 'l'his . .. . w” I“ t I!” (m. lence t at 18 mlxe 7 meanmg it ls gm“ .ul) 0 ml 1 “1mm flnt it will last It is not as susceptible to counterpcrwasivc attempm x , lltlill\‘iil('(l and unniotivated members and those who Will think critically and i i ' . . . . lhow who won't, it ma be im ortant to identif which of thcsc two 'itl(li- Another important factor 18 that persuaSion achicvcd through the ccn- y p y i . . . . . . . (‘tli‘i'fi is more iin >ort'mt and tailor our messa c to them. If ill'll‘ is not )ossi— tral roulc IS highly predictive of bChaVior. Persuasron aclncvcd through the l l c . y g f l ‘ . . . . l)l(‘_ ili'hyi-r a prcscntation that takes both the central and peripheral routcs. pcriphcral route, on the other hand, is loss enduring. It is susceptible to coun— _ _ I _ _ , I . . . ‘ . . . ‘ l his way both typcs otaudicncc incuibcrs Will gct the information they need. tcrpcrsuasmn, and it lh‘ not |)lL'(ll(‘ltV(‘ otbchavuri. _ . _ ‘ I Another conmdcration to make Wllt‘tl usuig tut .lVl is the goal olihc prc- '_ .-.r'nl;ilion. Really analyze your goal and :IHlt yourself the following questions: Applying the Principles of the ELM /\i(- you sucking long—icrui ('(Illlllitlllll‘tll troiu your :lll(ll(‘il(‘(‘? ls thc target ot . . . . . . , ’Utlt ii'i'sunsivr- a ) )i-nl hi'havioiali' || ‘itti :IIIhWi‘l' rm to l)()lll oi tll('s(‘ ( tics» ()tit‘ :ispr-r-t oi usury, llil‘ M .M l‘ll(‘( lt\‘(‘l\’ is “(Hui .’|ll(li(‘tt(‘(‘ :uialysrs. \ou lllllh‘l ‘I l l l t. t | . . . . . . lions. you want to (‘lli‘ittlttly‘i‘ voiu illitlit‘lii‘i' to use lli(' (‘t‘lllt‘tll roiili- Wllt‘ll IMW ,. [trunniqu iiilili‘INlillllltHg nl your illttlli‘lt(‘(‘ s motivation illltl thi-ir :rhil . . . . r . - , , . 7 7 . [not-(mini; lllt‘ uiloiiriritiuu tit \‘litlt llii".i‘ltl;llllill. As iiir-iiliour'il ('ttlllt'l. ily to think irritiiirllv nu tlu! gtwu mun It lll('\’ tttt' liotli llltiltvztlt‘il titlil :ililv 220 CHAPTER 9 l The Persuasive Process this route is more predictive of long—term change and behavioral changes (O’Keefe, 2002). Utilize those strategies that will encourage your audience to take that path (i.e., quality arguments). SQCEAL JUDGMENT THEORY Another theoretical perspective that helps us understand how persuasion works for an individual is . This theory explains that mem- bers of an audience evaluate messages in terms of the attitudes they already hold and then make a decision whether to embrace a particular message or to reject it (Sherif (31 Sherif, 1967). According to t\, t I M iii? RS OF AN AU DIE NC E this perspective, our attitudes fall along a contin- lVALUATE MESSAGES lN uurn. At one end is the , t t I3. hut“; OF TH E ATTlTU DES Any message that falls into this place on the con— l'l lEY ALREADY HOLD. tinuum will be accepted because it is viewed by the individual as consistent with attitudes he or she already holds. At the other end is the _ ‘ ’ ' Messages that fall into this area will be rejected because they are not consistent with an audi- ence’s attitudes. In addition to latitudes of acceptance and rejection is the i . This is that gray area that a person may not be sure about. It may be that individuals simply have not made up their mind or that they lack enough information about an issue to have a decisive attitude. The size of these three latitudes depends on ‘- ' r . , or how committed a person is to a particular idea. The more ego—involved an indi- vidual is, the more difficult it will be to change his or her attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors. If, for example, a person was an active member in the NRA and had firm attitudes on the right to bear arms, he or she would have a large lat— itnde of rejection regarding any argument for gun control. Additionally, the latitude of noncommitmth would be small. This person is not unsure or undecided on this issue. If Sarah Brady, a gun control activist, had to address an audience made up ofindividuals who hold these attitudes, she would have difficulty delivering any messages that would fall into their latitudes ofaeeep- lanee or nonconunilmcnt. The size ofthese latitudes W()tll(ll)(‘1lti important eonsideration when planning the presentation. Applylnq Social Judgment Theory It‘iom this diseussiou ol Soeuil lndjnnenl 'l'lieoi‘v, it should be evident llttil a speeeli topie on till r'slieuwli mulioveisiiil issue sneli as tillttlllillt would I .’— I i / I I I. t I .r' i ' I I w. t t t "AA Q!! t \4 x I... x ': i i. ’. “ W ‘. t --n- Il‘u‘p‘u‘u p The Persuasive Process | CHAPTER 9 221 be insurmountable in a public speaking course such as the one you are tak— ing On a topic such as this, your audience would have very decisive areas of acceptance and rejection and very small areas of noncommitment. On aver- age, you have roughly 7 minutes to make your presentation. It is impossible to ehange anyone’s opinion on the topic within that time frame. Because the area of noncommitmth is so small, there is just nowhere for an audience member to move. ()11 topics that are less controversial, it is important that you understand the attitudes ofyour audience and present a position that is close to their atti— tude of acceptance. For example, if you and your audience both agree that We need more social activities on campus, but disagree on how to pay for the piogralns, start where you agree and slowly move to points where you dis— aglee. Don’t start right off the bat pushing for a position where you know there is disagreement. Start in the latitude of acceptance and slowly move to :uens ofnoneommitment. Now that we understand all of this theory surrounding persuasion, we’ll diseilss how to take all of these ideas and turn them into meaningful and etteelive presentations. ORGANIZING THE PERSUASIVE SPEECH 'l‘lns seelion is designed to help you organize your persuasive presentation. it pleseilts each of the three types of persuasive speeches and discusses the appropriate way to organize each type. Presentations Concerning Questions of Fact It you deeide to deliver a speech targeting an audience’s beliefs, you Will be giving a speeeli regarding a question of fact, Persuasive speeches regard— ‘ ' areeoneernedwilliwllat ‘ ml' lasso/\siw .\|’I|t ills RIM/\RIHNM(JUISIIUN\ (it |/\(',t /\|<| t'tiNt‘lltNltt \Vllll WltAl l‘w tlllll Ht! t/\|‘»t, Wit/\l ||/\l't’|i‘~~lt|>(i|t Itllt t\t< tl lt/\t’|’| ixl. t it’ \\"||i\| t‘al'.|‘-.ti|1 l)()|‘~. [M )I |\l'.| is true oi lalse, what happened or did not hap— pen, oi what Mists oi does iiol exist. It you think .ilmul ll loi a moment, llieie me \‘(‘|\’ lew (Ines- tlonu tot Wlttl h We have delunlive answms. We tun-u tot Miuuple. that it I“ I‘m Illlli”. liom West luliueth , Indiana, to laittt'ittllt', lsenlm Ly We tuna llhtl l'iull “titles-to tlu l'apluui‘i ."il l\' ‘I‘lieue the simple C'HF‘IHHH'I to “hit h \u' ltMl' ioneiele ausweis. l‘l\‘('|\‘i)t|(‘ Would “Hi9? lilfil lltEhE Ht? littti Tluris uti‘ olln'l t|lt(“ullttlltu ol lai‘l, lIoweH'i. llltll 222 enmvrrlzrr t) | The Persuasive Process are not so easily answered but are often debated. Consider the following examples: :: Do other intelligent life—forms exist? :: Did Lee Harvey Oswald act alone? :: Was Princess Diana’s death an accident? :: Does eating a low-calorie diet lengthen the lifespan? We have no definitive answers to any of the preceding questions. There are many experts who believe that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in shoot— ing President John F. Kennedy, and many experts who believe that he did not. We have no definitive answer to this question. We might have a defini— tive answer at some point in the future, but right now we do not know for cer— tain. Questions of fact surround a controversy. It is important to remember that if there is no controversy surrounding your claim, you are not delivering a persuasive presentation concerning a question of fact. Organizing the Presentation The speech regarding a question of fact can be organized in many different ways. The most common way is the topical design. Another design that is appropriate for presentations concerning questions of fact is the . This particular pattern is most appropriate for those speeches where you are trying to establish a causal relationship between two variables. Here is an example thesis statement that would follow the causal pat— tern of organization: Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that television causes attention deficit disorder in young children. Thesis Statement: Television viewing by young children affects neurological development and leads to attention deficit disorder in later years. in this presentation, the speaker would need to argue that early exposure to television (the cause) leads to changes in brain chemistry that trigger atten— tion deficit disorder (the effect). 1. Main Point ()ne: l‘iarly exposure to television causes changes in brain chemistry. II. Main l’oiut 'I'Wo: 'l'lrese r'lranges in brain chemistry lend to dinonle l. suelr as atlentiorr deficit disorder. /\nol|rel |\pe rrl prrth'ru to one when making a presentation regarding a question ot tnrl t‘1lltt' tI‘ltttitltH‘ pattern It is one ol the most elteelive designs \‘ott will use when uniting a Itt't‘iltrt‘rlU‘ argument her-arise it presents holtr ‘ tltl ’t m The Persuasive Process | (.‘ttAI”t'l'21t () sides nl an argument along with a rebuttal of opposing ideas (Allen, l‘)‘)l; ( )'l\'eete, IW‘); see Spotlight on Research for more information). While llre it ipir'al and eausal design patterns are appropriate for informative speaking as well, the refutative pattern is unique to persuasive speaking. The oppositiou's arguments and to bolster your own. In order to accomplish this seeks to accomplish two goals: to deflate the tank, you must point out flaws in the opponent’s argument. He or she may lt.t\'e weak evidence or problems in reasoning, and it is important that you point those out to your audience. The key to using this design successfully is .r r teal understanding of the opponent’s position. You must have a thorough uruteistanding ol his or her purpose, arguments, and evidence. The relulaliye pattern is particularly effective when addressing an audi— ride that is hostile or unfavorable to your position. The design works with Irmlrle :mdienees because you acknowledge your opponent’s arguments first .nrd then show the weaknesses in those arguments before presenting your on u position. 'I‘Irere are tour steps in the refutation pattern: Step One: Step Two: State the argument you are gorng to refute. State and list the errors of the opposing argument. /\t this step you rrrusl present facts, figures, cxalnples, and/or teslirrrony to support your refutation. Step 'I'Iu'ee: State and deliver evidence to support your alternative argument. Again, at this step you must present evidence VS“ that the audience will find credible and persuasive in order to support your position. Step I"our: illsplain how your argument or position disputes that of the opposition. ‘I‘lreue *rlep‘. ran be arranged in many different ways within the body of your lttr‘w‘tttttlttill |.et'-. hulk at one way a student organized lrcr arguments for a itavmlunru lttl“tt‘||liti|t)|l Matti l'otult .\r r ordmg to the Atkins (Icnlcr, high—protein diets rrultlllrltte to weight loss, and therelore to good health and llt‘d'u'a' prevention. \ individuals who tollow these diet plans do lose weight In the short term Irv eating high—protein luorln, wlrrelr lowers their calorie intake. (l'ixplaiu the Ira-at '. ot the diet.) It While Individuals will lose Weight in the short term, they are unlikely to eorrtinue with these diets 223 224 CHAPTER 9 t The Persuasive Prooeu for the long term and quickly return to unhealthy eating patterns. C. A diet high in protein and low in fruits and carbohydrates is risky even in the short term, and recent research shows it can lead to diseases suetr as diabetes, heart disease, and kidney disease. (( ttte some of the recent studies.) D. When we examine the recent research in healttu‘ eating, it becomes obvious that high—protein diets will not lead to good health or disease prevention. Main Point II: In order to reach optimum health through healthy eating, one must make lifestyle changes. A. Lifestyle changes, not high—proteirr diets. lead to prolonged weight loss. (Cite sorrre of the reeent research.) B. Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are the optimal base for a healthy diet and have been shown to lead to a decrease in diseases web as diabetes and heart problerrrs. (Again, eite sorrre ot the research.) C. As you can see, adopting and maintaining a healthy lifestyle change by eating a well bataur‘elt diet is the road to better nrrtritiorr. In this design the student combined steps one and two in the lirst main point and steps three and four in the second rrrairr point. She addressed the oppositiorr's arguments and showed why they are flawed. 'I'trere are other eornbirralions that could have worked. You eorrtd take eaetr ol the tour steps and rrrake each a nrairr point. 'l'here is flexibility in how you arrange the tntlr steps. As long as all the steps are included for all ot the arguments \‘otl rite refuting, you will be in good shape. Presentations Concerning Questions of Value The persuasive presentation eoneerning a question ot value involves the audience's attitudes on a partierrlar' topie. rogue tttttl positions are good or had. ethieal or unethical. moral or immoral, or right or wrong. I tere are some esarrrples ol questions ol value: :: ls hunting rurettrir‘alr‘ :: tshrrlttirrtrtrngtntunrraue.‘ .r.t g. ,— - — *1 - s _, - a, if i - ,- x. , -- 1. . l ' I a if 7‘" The Persuasive Process | CHAPTER 9 ts solar energy the ideal form ofpower? Is the space program a good use of taxpayer money? (tnr- irnporlarrt key to handling a question of value effectively is to tr‘ioelirtrel ltrat questions of value are not opinions. Simply stating, “I think solar power is wonderful,” is an opinion. This is roru opinion, and no one will question you about rt ion do not have to supply support— trug errrlenee tor your opinion. If, however, you tthttu‘ the r taim, "Solar power is the ideal form rrt power," you have gone beyond stating your personal opinion :rrrd are now making a claim WRONG. about a question ol value. When \ou go beyond personal opinion, you must justify your claim through the rise ot supporting evidence. You must build a case for your posi— tron t the “at to brritd the case for your position is to set the standards for ttrr i turn \orl are making. What makes an ideal power source? Define those standards hrst. 't'herr show trow your claim meets those standards. organizing the Presentation t'r rsurr'are presentations on questions ofvalue are usually organized topically. It \ou have a topie that requires you to set a standard against which to judge roru .rrgmnerrt, you will want to begin by laying out your standards. The sec— orat Irraur poirrt demonstrates trow your argument measures up against the standards \on have set. 'I be following is an example ofa speech positing that ‘rlltrtt power is the ideal torrn ot power: .‘ipeeitie Purpose: 'Iir persuade my audience that solar energy is the ideal train of power. It'tilflitir Htutelllt‘ut: Solar power is the ideal for'rn ofpower because it is r lean. eost r-lteetive, and sustainable. Mitt! Paint It All ideal torrrr ol power shorrtd meet the following titli‘ltrt A It ~horr|d he etean. It lt ‘rttiittlil tie eost elteetive. it It should be sustainable. Solar energy meets all ol these er'iter'ia for an ideal turnrr ot lame! a Solar r'ttt‘tm pirulttr'es no Irvprodrrets that pollute the errruounreut. Itiilhttl“ it the r terurest torur ot power currently available. 225 O\UESTIONS OF VALUE ARGUE THAT POSITIONS /\t{| GOOD OR BAD, ETHICAI OR UNETHICAL. MORAI UR IMMORAL, OR RIGHT OR 226 CHAPTER 9 | The Persuasive Process B. Current advancements in solar panel construction have radically increased their efficiency, making them more cost effective than they have been in the past. C. Unlike other fuels, solar power relies on a source of energy that will not be exhausted over time and through use. You do not always have to follow the guidelines of setting up your crite— ria in the first main point and using the second main point to demonstrate how your claim meets the criteria. The following is another way you might organize a speech of value: Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that spanking children is morally wrong. Thesis Statement: Spanking children is morally wrong because it demeans our children and devalues human integrity. Main Point I: Spanking our children is an immoral practice that demeans our youngest citizens. (Speaker provides supporting evidence.) Main Point 11: Spanking young individuals devalues the worth of human beings. (Speaker provides supporting evidence.) It is important to keep in mind that speeches of value may often be the catalyst that moves people to action. If someone becomes moved by your pre— sentation on the unethical nature of hunting to get involved in an organiza— tion such as People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), it is just the end result of your speech. Presentations on questions of value only argue the right and wrong of a particular issue. They do not concern themselves with what should or should not be done. Once you ask your audience to do something, you have targeted a behavior and crossed the line between ques— tions of value and policy. Make sure that if your assignment asks you to make a persuasive presentation on a question of value, you stick to that goal. Do nol make the mistake ofaskiiig your audience to take action. The action slep moves you into qiieslious ol policy. which we discuss next. Presentatlons Concernlnq Questlons of Policy The peisiiasiw IIH‘M‘IIIIIIIHII l mu i-uniii', a laiigi-Is lli‘ll;l\’ inns in \\'ll;|l \\'(' should ui filllllllll no] he dump, as an Individual. ;| (‘UIHIIIII uin III mm a iiiiliuii lliiir .iii mnui- i'\.llli|ili". ul cluesliuuu nl lllllll'\' " g «P 13 i a The Persuasive Process I eiiAiri'iriu) '2 Should we ban smoking in all public buildings, including restaurants and bars? : Should physical education be mandatory at every grade level in our nation’s schools? -: Should our community engage in curbside recycling? : Should the United States change its immigration policies? When we think about making a persuasive presentation, most of us think about speeches on questions ofpolicy. We usually want to persuade someone or a group of people to do something related to some policy. We might want them to vote for TH E PE RS UASIVE our candidate for homecoming court, protest a PRESE N'IV‘ATIO N recent Purdue administration decision, or take up exercising. If you are trying to get your audi— O I: POLICY TARG IETS ence to do something, you are talking about a question of policy. It is important to note that questions ofpol— icy almost always include questions of fact or value. While the question of policy would be the primary goal of the presentation, secondary attention would have to be paid to questions of fact or value. Remember, atti— tudes and beliefs underlie behaviors, so they may need to be addressed in order to reach a behavioral goal or policy change. Questions of policy, how- ever, always go beyond questions of fact and value and advocate that some— thing should or should not be done. When making a speech concerning a question of policy, careful atten— tion must be paid to the , , and of the proposals being presented (Lucas, 2006). First of all, you must demonstrate to your audience that there is a problem or a need for your proposed policy. Why should we ban smoking in all public buildings in our corn— niunity? You must present evidence to Show that smoking in public buildings is a problem for individuals in your community. The evidence you present must be compelling enough to con— Vince your audience that some change in policy should be adopted. Sometimes you are Ii‘ying lo change a pol- PROPOSALS- ii'y, and olliei‘ limes vou iiiiiglil he :iigiiiiig IIiaI sonic policy should ii'iiiaiii llH' \.l|ll(‘. Iii ()llll‘l words, you are simply reinforc— ing the alliliiile lllill llli‘ ('lllli'lll Iilllli‘\ in Il(l(‘(|ll.’ll(' (ll ieasoiialile. (Ionsiiler llii- liill(l\\'llll" lupii': 'l‘lu' lllllll'il Shili". 'illilllltl not change iIs iniiiiiigialioii lililll‘IP'». Iii Ilui, slim-i li inn iinuld inigur lli.i| ciliaiiiginig llH‘ ('lllli‘lll polities 227 CONCERNING A QUESTION BEHAVIORS OR WHAT WE SI IOULD OR SHOULD NOT BE DOlNCfiAs AN INDIVIDUAL. A COMMUNITY. OR EVEN A NATION. WHEN MAKINC A SPEECH CONCERNING A (LUI, OE POLICY. CAREFUL ATTENTION MUST til: I’AID TO THE NEED. PLAN. I‘RACTICALITY OF THE {fs'l‘ION AND 228 CHAPTER 9 | The Persuasive Process ORDER OF ARGUMENTS ()ne of the most common questions students ask is which argument should be put first and which last. Should I spring my strongest argument on my audience first (primacy effect), or wait until the very end to use my strongest evidence (recency effect)? The research at this time is inconclusive (O'Keefe, 2002). One thing is for certain: never sandwich your trust or strongest piece of evidence in the middle of your presentation. It is better to end or begin with a bang. One aspect to consider is the situation in which you are speaking. If you know that you are likely to run out of time during the presentation, do not save your best argument for the end of the presentation because you may not get to it. In a situation where time is limited and you are worried about your ability to finish the presentation, use your strongest evidence or argument first, so that you can adequately explain and present that material. However, if you know that you will have plenty of time to address all of the points of your presentation, you may be able to build to your strongest piece of evidence. You will also want to think about how motivated your audience is to process the arguments you will present. If they are less motivated, their attention may wane as the presentation continues, no you may want to present your strongest argument first. As with every stage in the process of developing a presentation, you must consider the situation and audience when making these types of decisions. (l’Koeie, D. J. (2002). Persuasion: Theory & research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. would cause more harm than good, and advocate that the United States continue doing what it is already doing. You are still advocating a course ol' action. In addition to convincing your audience that a problem or need exists, you must also demonstrate that you have a clear plan that will address the cause or causes of the problem. You must convince your audience that your solution will be able to alleviate the problem. Once you have established a need to change current policy and pre» scnted your plan or solution, you must demonstrate that your plan is pure-- tieal. Although you may have done an incredible job convincing your audience that there is a problem with current policy, unless you can also per— snade them that your solution For alleviating the problenr is Feasible, you will be nnsncccsshrl. 'I'lie bottonr line is that the audience wants to believe your plan is workable. 'l‘lrcy nrusl believe that your plan will alleviate problems without causing new ones \Vllilc you rrray propose a wonderlill plan to clean up the Wabash Kiycr, llrc llilt‘t' tar; ; usocialcd with your proposal may he too Illtl(‘ll lor the conrnrlrillh Io .rlr'iorlr 'l'hc c\pcrrsc ol the proposal would crc alc prolrlcmu tll ollrcr tilt'li't hit the ronrruinrily. perhaps increases in laws and cutbacks in rrllll't rrrliilrtllrtilt llllllll'tl programs. tie; Iii t l-.l-\-l-l.i-l-i-l-l-l-l-l l! p” The Persuasive Process | (ill/\l"l‘tv‘.lt o Sometimes when speaking on a question ol policy, a speaker's only goal 1-. to get an andiencc to agree that, indeed, a change in policy does need to he made. However, the speaker may rrol be asking anything else hour the audience. In this case, the speaker is seeking passive agreement. is gaining acceptance for your position from your audience u ilhonl asking them to take action. Perhaps you persuade your audience that .r clrarrgc needs to be made, but you don’t suggest what that change miglrl be. \llt'l rraliyely, you might seek to gain agreement from your audience, but that may lrt‘ all you are seeking. You don’t want them to take any further action, |Il'.l agreement. “this is the case, you are seeking passive agreement. I Y Sometimes a speaker is seeking more than just passive agreement. I hat in, .1 '.pr':lk(‘l‘ is asking tor more than just an agreement that the proposed pol— n \ r hangc slronld l)e nrade. The speaker seeks what we call active agree— ment requires both agreement and action on the part ol the .nrdience. In this case, the speaker needs the audience to get involved or order to achieve the change in policy. Perhaps the speaker asks the andr-~ I or r- to sign a petition, bnya rattle ticket, vote for a proposition in an upcom— rim i‘lr'r‘litrll, or sign a donor registration card. Regardless of the behavror lhc spoil cl adyocatcs, the audience is being asked for more than just agreement. the .rndiencc has to become actively involved in order to achieve the ultr» tll.lll' poal ol llrc presentation. UHJJIHIHHJ the Presentation I lu'rr .lrr' many ways to organize presentations concerning questions olpol- r: \ ‘l‘lu plrilrlr'lil solution and the pr<)l)le1u—eause~solntron designs are orga- nr/rrllonal ur heme. tor the presentation regarding the speech otpohcy. lhc hrllrrn rug r-. .in example ol the speech structure. Spu ilh l’mpmc; 'l‘o persuade my audience that action is needed to dcal with the problems created by irreitectrve design and placement otstrect and road signs in lr.|l.ryc||c. “Ninth Slatcrncnl; lnellcclive design and placement ol‘streel signs llI l.;rlayeltc causes many trallie problems in our city, and there are steps we can take to improve the situation. Mum I'onrl I: 'l'lic incllcctiyc design and placement ol-strccl and road signs in tril‘ayettc is very dangerous. ('l‘lris is the problem.) A. It is estimated that nearly one third to onclrall ol all street signs in Inlayctlc arc nnssmg. 229 230 euArvrrar o l The Persuasive Process B. More than one—half of the street signs in Lafayette are not clearly legible. C. Many local accidents are a result of mistakes drivers make due to ineffective or Main Point II: The problem with our road signs can ::::ll:escllgilhsa three-step process. (This is the solution.) A. First, all of the road signs in Lafayette must be replaced with signs that meet national safety recommendations. B. Second, the road signs must be relocated to appropriate locations within intersections. Tl C. Finally, missing signs must be replaced. li111i:g the prob]. design simply adds a third step. After out— em, you add a second main point, whic of the problem. The final h lays 0m the causes or third main point in this cl ' ' r V I t ' es1 n IS the solut' lhe de31gn looks like this: Main point one, the problems ' Ion. the causes of the problem; and main point three, the soluti that when speakers use the problem—cause—sol often more practical. Addressing the causes I solution that Is more feasible. This arrangement usually resul overall argument. The following is a brief exampl problem—cause—solution design. on. I have found utlon des1gn, their solutions are 1elps ensure that you propose a ts in a tighter e of an outline using the Spec1f1c Purpose: To persuade the audience that they should recycle as a way of combating tl in our area. The51s Statement: Our landfill 1e waste disposal problem I s are overflowing and our failure to recycle IS exacerbating this issue. Main Point I' ' ' ' ' ' . Waste disposal is a s1g111f1cant problem. (This is the problem.) Main Poin ' ' 7 ' t II. Why lsn t our community recycling? (This is the underlying cause or causes.) A. ' . . . There 13 a lack ofknowlcdge about current recycling programs. B. Another reason has to do with the inconvenience ofrccvcli . I Jr n". Main Pomt III: N There is an easy two-part solution that will make recycling both easier and more is the solution.) A. lt'irst, we convenient. (This need to implement promotional campaigns that elaiilr proper reerelinp procedures. ' l, \ ll ‘ tilt ill“ l” W W t t t i it v ‘ ll ili‘tti The Persuaslve Process | (lttAt"l'l-‘,tt o B. Second, eitv sanitation departments iriiisl be expanded to provide curbside pickup and their lronrs must be increased. in addition to these options is Monroe's motivated sequence, air adapted \l‘l‘illlll ot the ‘)l'()l)lCltt—S()ltlll()11 design. It was created at Purdue University In l'lirles‘soi Alan Monroe in the 19305 and is 'dtll prominenth used in marketing and adver- THE MU’t'tVAt it) \t t )l It Ni t tl'rttrifi todav PROVIle /\ HI‘SlKiN llt In pnuranh used when a speaker wants to move ORG/\NtZt |'| It | N | IN an rtllillr'lti'i' to immediate action. While all of l’t‘xtiSliN'l'A’t‘tt)t\l. llr: other organizational patterns presented in \onr Ir \lliooL have provided ways to organize the main points of a presen- tation, the motivated sequence provides a design to organize the entire pre— nr ntaliorr There are live steps in this pattern: attention, need, satisfaction, \t‘.lt.tlI/.Iliiill_ and action. /\t ten ti on This step is exactly like the first step in any other presentation you make. You must gain the audience's atleiitiou. You can accomplish this through a variety of HtepUue: strategies. Need ( )rree you have grabbed your audiences attention, Step Two: you then must convince the audience that there is a need lor change. You must persuade them that the r nuenl product, policy, or candidate (for example) is problematic. You establish this need through the rise ol evidence. It is important that you have conducted a thorough audience analysis so that you can use the type ot i'\ uleuee llral will convince your target audience that a tired Mints Htep'l'luee Satistiietiou No“ that you have generated a sense of need iii your audience, you provide them Willt your solution, or 'ulll‘rlitt’lllttt, to this need. l'ixplain your plan. Remember. it it. uupoilant at this point iii the presentation that you deuronstiate to \'(tlt| audience that the plan you are proposing is practical. Visualization .‘\I this point. ask \‘ltllt audience to visualize voru plan. Mep hour: You want to paint a mental pieliue ol the solution, \on uanl to show the audience the lienelits ot euar tiny, vorn 231 232 Step Five: CHAPTER 9 | The Persuasive Process solution and the consequences if they do not. You must also be able to demonstrate to your audience how they will benefit directly from your proposed solution. Action Once you have convinced your audience that there is a need, and you have proposed a workable solution, it is time to call them to action. Tell the audience exactly what they need to do and how to do it in order to ensure the activation of your plan. If you want them to send an e—mail to their representative, provide the e—mail address. If you want them to write a letter to the city commissioner, provide the address. If you want them to vote in the upcoming election, give details about where and when to vote. The clearer and easier you make the action step, the more likely your audience will respond to your call for action (O’Keefe, 1997). This means using a visual aid to reinforce the address, phone number, and so on. It is insufficient to deliver these types of small details without the use of a visual aid. You really need that added USING MONROE'S MOTIVATED SEQUENCE Introduction Attention Step II. Credibility Statement III. Relevance Statement IV. Thesis Statement Fansition Body MPI Need Step Transition MPII Satisfaction Step Transition MPIII Visualization Step Transition Conclusion Restate Thesls Acrlon Step \I . l induifldw rprg \_\_l_. r V w. .r r it Thu Persuaslve Process | enAm‘r-za o impaet. Ir‘inally, end the speeeh with a resounding appeal to aetion that will motivate your audienee to get involved. Here is an example of an abbreviated speech that utilizes Monroe’s Ilirlll\‘.‘|lt‘tl sequenee. Although it is not noted here, you must have all of the elements ol the introduction and the conclusion that are required for any pleuenlal ion. There is also a transcript ofa speech employing Monroe’s moti— r.r|ed uerpn‘liee, with eounnentary, presented at the end ofthis chapter. hitioduelion: |. Attention: Have you ever dreamed about being a hero or heroine? l lave you ever wished you could do something great, something that would really make a difference in our world? I'm here to tell you, you can, if you’re willing to give just three hours a week. (Put the rest of the elements of the introduction in here.) Hrnly: II. Need: ()ur community needs volunteers to help take care of homeless and abandoned animals. The Humane Society of I alayette has a program designed to care for these pets, but only volunteers ean make the program work. The program needs at least b’tt volunteers to work At this point we only have 58. III. Salislaetion: Volunteering at the l lumane Society will help to ensure that this worthwhile program continues and flourishes. Being involved in this program will also make you a hero in the eyes ol some neglected animal. IV. Visualization: Maybe you can have an experience that will be as rewarding as mine has been. Last year I worked with a ‘l year old blaek liabrador mix. Her name was Reba and two altenroons eaeh week. I bathed her and took her for a walk. She had been abandoned by her previous owners when they vaealed their apartment. When I started volunteering at the shelter, she nan eslrerneh shy and nervous But a eouple olimonlhs rtlll‘t nn real'. began, she started to exhibit quite a personality. The. program \\‘.l‘r remarkable. Not only was I able to help it: but rillrllll to her new ern'iiornnenl and learn some important not Iril ulilln, but I reeen'ed the beuelit ol having a pet in my ltlr In rnr r mienl situation, I earr'l have a pel ol my own. Reba are: r \- nlnalh adopted b\ a loving lamih‘. and l have to think that noun Ill rrrr lore .rnd attention enabled her to make that ilritt‘rtllrill more t'.l'v|l\ lint what Would have happened to Reba ll l had not \nlnnleeied and the program eould not eonlinnei' 233 234 (:tlAl"I‘l".I( () l The Persuasive Process Conclusion: V. Call for Action: Won’t you join me and become one of the unsung heroines or heroes at the Humane Society? You can make a difference in Just one or two afternoons each week. I've got the applications with me and will be waiting for you to sign up after class. There are Inany animals at the shelter that need a little love and companionship while they wait for the right family. Won’t you help make a difference? Although persuasion is something that we engage in every day, it is a very complex process. Persuasive presentations ask the audience to choose l)etween two or more alternatives, demand a thorough analysis of the audi- ence, make more demands ofthe audience, and have a higher ethical thresh— old than informative speaking. In order to be effective, the persuasive speech must have a strong sense ofpurpose. The persuasive process begins with an understanding ofwl ral you are going to target in a persuasive attempt—attitude, belief, or behavior and what your goal is, whether changing, creating, or reinforcing llral target. Once this decision has been made, you must determine whether your pre- sentation concerns a question offact, value, or policy and organize it :reeordr irrgly. Additionally, you will want to consider other persuasive factors srrclr as speaker credibility and message characteristics. Aetivc agreement Need Atlrtude Passive agreen rerrl Belprvror Peripheral route lielref Persuasion Causal pattern l’lan (:enlral r'oulc Practicalin (rlrangrng l’rinraev cllecl (1»; ' r l ' u rlrnr, l’rohlenrmrnsesolution l ursrou rules l’rolrlenr solutxon Questions ol lact Questions ol policy Lhwsllou'u ol \‘alne trigoarrVoIVemenl l'llalroration l'Zlalroration lilht‘lllllltltl Muriel tl'll N) I ' , r I a. r I ,l _ h" J' I u , K..A144 I hiiiiiii \it‘ \- M The Persuaslve Process (1|l/\t"l'l'2|{() (Ioals Reecncy effect latitude ol acceptance Refutative pattern Reinforce Social Judgment Theory latitude ol rrorreonrrrritmerrt latitude ol rejection Monroe's motivated sequence Target Allen, M. ( I991 ). Meta—analysis comparing the persuasiveness of one-sided and two sh lcd messages. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 55, 390—404. l'lrrigli‘. A. ||.. & (ilraiken, S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes. Orlando, l"| t: llarcourl. I~‘.-e.im,v_o, | .. ( I957). A theory ofcognitive dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University l‘ress. l'llslrlrcilr, M. (1967). A consideration of beliefs, and their role in attitude measurement. in M. Fishbein (Ed), Readings in attitude theory and mea- surement (pp. 257—266). New York: John Wiley. It'islrlwin, M., & Aizen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. |\'rm. M. 8., & l lunler, J. E. (1993). Attitude—behavior relations: Ameta-analysis ol attitudinal relevance and topic. Journal ofCornmunieation, 43, ll)l~l42. Lucas, S. (2006). The art ofpublic speaking. New York: MeCraw-l lill. Miller, (I. R. (I972). Persuasion. In C. R. Berger <31 S. H. Chaffee (lids), l land/rook (rt-communication science (pp. 446—483). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. ( t'Kcelc, I). J. (I997). Standpoint explicitness and persuasive effect: A meta- analytic review of the effects of varying conclusion articulation in per— suasive messages. Argumentation and Advocacy, 34, 1—12. lt'chle, l). J. (I999). How to handle opposing arguments in persuasive rummage»; A meta—analytic review of the effects ofone-sided and two-sided Inmsages ( Zorrnnnrrication Yearbook, 22, 209—249. t l'Kttelc, l). ], (.ZttltZ). Persuasion: 'lllreory (’7' research. 'l'housand ()aks, (IA: Huge l'irllnll. It M. (.ttttti), The dynamics ofpersrmsiorr. llillsdale, NJ: Lawrence l'ltllrmlnr. l’ellv. it. I"... r\" (lacioppo, 'l'. (l98‘l). The effects of involvement on H‘NIIHIIMW lo argument quantity and quality: (lenlral and peripheral routes In persuasion. Jourml/ o/l’ersoorl/it)‘ and Social Psychology, +0, 09-8]. lerll, l\l., «V Slreril'. (I. W. (1907). Attilndc as the individual's own cale~ gotten: The social indgrnenldrIvolverncnl approach to altitude and altitude change. to (I. W. SluerllW M. Slwrlt'll'lds). Attitude ego—trrvolverrrent. and change (pp. ltt‘? 1W). New Yorle thw 235 ...
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