#21 - Strategies for the Persuasive Process

#21 - Strategies for the Persuasive Process - g it Q s, 5...

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Unformatted text preview: g it Q s, 5 39 ‘: CHAPTER OBIECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Explain the role of ethos, logos, and pathos in presentational speaking. Define the differences between initial credibility, derived credibility, and terminal credibility. Define reasoning from deduction and explain tips for using it effectively. Define reasoning from induction and explain tips for using it effectively. Define casual reasoning and explain guidelines for using it effectively. Define analogical reasoning and explain guidelines for using it effectively. Discuss ethical considerations of using emotional appeals. 238 CHAPTER 10 l Strategies for Persuasive Presentations 0 one can forget the outburst of Joe Wilson, the COP congressman from ' l ' Iarolina, who shouted “You lie” at President Obama during his pre- on on health care. This outburst from Congressman Wilson is an , exec, rent example of how emotions often interfere with our ability to make sound judgments (lilting heated debates. In this example, Congressman Wil- son let his emotions get the best of him, leading to an error in reasoning llrat ultimately affected his ability to engage in a legitimate debate on the health— eare issue. The first mistake was the inappropriateness of the comment itself. 'l'lre very act of shouting feedback to President Obama in this manner was inap» propriate. Members of Congress refrain from shouting feedback or corn-- ments in this forum. Congressman Wilson failed to adhere to the rrrles of the environmental speaking constraints. As discussed in Chapter 2, the uni ronment in which you speak has important implications for the design ot your message. Congressman Wilson failed to take this into account wire became overwhelmed with emotions. Even if the outburst was typical for the environment in which this pic sentation took place, he committed a fallacy or reasoning error. Congress man Wilson attacked the person; in this case, President Ob the ideas or proposals in the health—care plan. This type of fallacy is called an argument ad hominem and will be addressed later in this chapter. liy attack ing the speaker rather than the argument, Congressman Wilson diverted the conversation from the real issue, which was health c the person, which is irrelevant in this case. The use ofarr argument ad lroirri nem typically reflects more negatively on the speaker than the person being attacked. It is often viewed as a “Cheap” way to make an argnrrrerrt. 'l ‘he use oi such a fallacy can undermine one’s potential for eorrtiiriied Cfft,‘(‘ll\"(‘ debate Congressman Wilson has suffered for his corrnnc remembered as the congressman who called the the nation. His credibility has suffered and he h ticipate effectively in the health—care debate. 'l'his chapter provides you with the skills and strategies to engage in irrorc fruitful and productive debates. lfyorr follow the guidelines arrrl piric lice tlrese strategies, hopefully, you won’t find yourselfin Congressman Wil son's shoes. n he anra, instead ol are, to the character oi irts. lie will be l()tt‘\’t't presiderrl a liar in hunt oi as tarnished his ability to par 'l'he chapter is designed to help you examine the unions types rrl appeals that you haye at your disposal when pre serrting a pcrsrrasiye prr'seir tatiorr. Often, we look tor that magic bullet tlral will ensure our [N'I‘rttit'er' attempts are sueeesstul. lint, there is no magic brrllcl or easy sirlllltlilt. l'r'i sriasion is a process. the ntiritcgir'i. discussed in this chapter plriy .I big priil in that process. Holirl rcrir-irriiiig. eltr'r tue use ol emotion. and credibility r‘rtli irrake the dillcreriee hetiyeen rm rillr‘r‘lrr'c persuasive attempt and an inrilltie r, r“ (r rip |ll rim, Illli‘ \IIIIIIIIIIIhiih III II t 4 till it Btratoqtes for Persuaslve Prasontatlonl | t?||r\l"t't".|( ro tric .ilternpl, it you know lrow to implement them well. Appeals alone aren't magic bullets, but they may be the thing to push your presentation to the ll('\l lr'yr‘l. this chapter discusses the art ofnsirrg appeals and some strategies lrrl noplemerrtirrg tirerrr successfully. ILTHOS, LOGOS, AND PATHOS ’l‘he strategies ot reasoning rely on three appeals. According to the Creek plrrlo-.oplrer Aristotle, in his book Rhetoric, these appeals include: appeals to Nine. or credibility, logos or logic, and pathos or emotion. Although Aristo— Ilr' hyed in another time far removed from the society we live in today, tlresc llttr'r' appeals continue to guide the communication strategies use in the model n \yor lrl. We use these three appeals in all types of speakmg, but they lir'r ornc eycn rrrorc important when delivering persuasive presentations. In llrru chapter we will examine each of these three types of appeals. Ustnq Ethos in Your Presentation .\r r outing to Aristotle, refers to the credibility ofa speaker. 4 I . ‘ rc-.rril.-. hour the perceptions of audience members about the behevabrlrty ol .i up. .rker, ( Ircdibility is made up of two factors: expertise and trustworthiness (t )'t\cctc, fItttlZ). Speakers are judged as demonstrat— rrrr- it tlrey appear experienced, informed, TIPS FOR ENHANCING ETHOS Use strong evidence Irinrrcrl, rlrralitied, skilled, and intelligent. According hr lir‘l'rllJ‘rlriii Icsr'ar‘clrcl' Dan O’Keefe, all of these rltlili‘lt‘ariil'. are concerned wrth one central question: Establish Common ground, in the npeaker iii a position to know the truth or what with the audience In rrght or worry, about a particular topic? It so, we Be Upfront about goals \\ ill hurt the upcakcr lrrglr m expertlsc. Use an appropriate deuverv is determined by assessing a Style upmiker lirilir“.l\’, rrpcrr—mindcdness, sense ofiustice, tonne-m. .rirrl imsellislrness (Bradley, W8]; it'aleione, l't' l, t )'|\cc|e, .ZttttZ). Ultimately, the airdicrrce is risking the question, is the '.'ir'.il«i'l telling the trrrllr as he or she knows it? lflhe audience believes so, the nprvrrlrcr t‘. riccmcrl trustworthy. ‘ As illsr'lisseil in other chapters, your credibility is ill lire eye ol your mail rlIi c it is lire perception yoirr audience has about the credibility you have on a particular topic, and it can greatly allecl how they react to your piesen t.r|rorr. Will they listen attentively or will they take what you have to say wrtlr 239 240 CHAPTER 10 l strategies for persuasive presentations 7 Strategies for Persuasive Presentations | (1I|./\|"t‘li‘.|{ I0 241 a grain of salt? Your perceived credibility can have profound impacts on how You cannot underestimate the effect identification and audience anOth'lltl'tll will have on a persuasivr- your audience approaches your presentation. It is important to keep in mind that credibility can vary from situation to _ . t‘REDlBlLlTYCHANGES ttit ltst TOPIC TO TOPIC AND AUDIENCE TO AUDIENCE, BUT IT ALSO CHANGES ll! HUNG A PRESENTATION. situation and from audience to audience. Credibility is the audience’s pcr~ ception of a speaker, and so it will vary greatly depending on the situation. You may have great credibility with your classroom audience as a speaker on nanotechnology. After all, you are an undergraduate engineering student working in the lab of a professor involved in cutting—edge research on the topic, If you delivered a similar presentation to an audience made up of pro- fessors pursuing lines of research in the area of nanotechnology, your credi- bility would be questionable. Similarly, while you may be extremely qualified and competent to deliver a presentation on one topic, you would not be qualified to deliver a presentation on another topic. For example, Brian Williams, a well-respected national news anchor, is well qualified to deliver a presenta— tion to an audience on the media coverage of Iraq. We would be less likely to find Brian Wil— liams competent to deliver a presentation on gracious entertaining; however, we would find Martha Stewart competent to deliver that presentation. As you have seen, credibility changes from topic to topic and audience to audience, but it also changes during a presentation. There are three types of credibility that help describe the changes to a speaker’s credibility durng a presentation (McCroskey, 2000). refers to the credibil— ity a speaker has before he or she begins the presentation. This information may be publicized by posters listing a speaker’s credentials. If you are intro» dueed by someone, he or she will usually list your qualifications. You can also explain your own competence in the introduction of your presentation (see Chapter 4). So, before you even begin your presentation, your audience has already formed an attitude about how credible you will be on the topic you will address. results from the actual messages you present dur‘ ing your presentation. ()bviously, what you say or do duringr the presentation has a great impact on your credibility. While you may have had extremely high initial credibility, you can do things during the actual presentation that erode your credibility. Likewise, you can start a presentation with low initial credibility and. through the rise ol strong reasoning, clleetive delivery. and strong organization, achieve high t‘tr‘llll)llll\’ in the eyes ol your audience. ml r u ulrmlu relets to the credibility ol the speaker at the end oi the presentation. Ho. it you lune trpplred the sllrtlr‘uies discussed in llrrs see i - I. I. I. I I I ‘l ‘I ‘- ‘ message. lion sueecsslldly, you may arrive at the end of your presentation with even more credibility than when you began. Don’t underestimate the importance at your eicdibilit‘y. It can have a dramatic effect on the success ofa presenta— tion. 'l‘erniinal credibility is important because it establishes the credibility \ou have going into future presentations. In other words, the terminal credi— llllll\ in one presentation affects the initial credibility in your next presenta— In In Ho, giving a poor presentation affects your credibility as a whole. Hm to: f nhancinq Ethos lloir r .rrr \ou establish credibility during your presentation? First and lore— tlui'd. use strong evidence. You want to use evidence from respected sources H I l\rI‘lr', ,’lttt.’.). Supporting evidence from less—thatr—legitinialc sources “out do ttIlIr‘lI to bolster your credibility. Analch your audience and ask tour-ii ll. nlral types of sources will this partierrlar aridicnec respect? llse thirst sorures \orr may have to vary supporting material depending on the purtu ul.u audience you are addressing. You also want to ensure that your srippiulnu', (“‘lllt'llt't‘ is timely. ()nldated evidence will limit your :Il)llll\‘ lo til llll \" \Hlll HUJIIN. ‘ . . . .u'r mud, \on \‘t‘tltll to establish common ground \\'|llt vorn audrerree. /'\s iii dist ussed rn (ihapler i. you never want to alienate an audience, It Will 'Ilrlli all In attacking llrc positron \‘Ultl illllllt‘lltt‘ holds, \ou won't pet \‘r'n' 242 CHAPTER 10 I Strategies for Persuasive Presentations far. Begin by showing similarities between you and your audience and then move to areas where you may experience controversy. You want to demon- strate respect for your audience. This enhances liking for you as the speaker and is important in enhancing your character as a speaker. Third, being upfront about your goals as a speaker goes a long way toward building your trustworthiness. It does nothing for your credibility as a speaker to have a hidden agenda. Finally, using an appropriate delivery style will also enhance audience perception of your competence. Using fluent vocal delivery is extremely important. Make sure your vocal style is free from any vocal disfluencics. Vocal pauses such as um, uh, and so on cause the credibility ofa speaker to diminish (Greene, 1984; Street & Brady, 1982). Wearing appropriate attire can also affect your credibility. Review the guidelines on dressing appropri- ately in Chapter 11. Using Logos in Your Presentation refers to logic and appeals to an individual’s intelligence. You incor- porate logos into your presentations by using arguments or reasoning. We build strong arguments by gathering supporting evidence, organizing solid arguments, and using reasoning to explain how that evidence supports llre claims we are making. In order to be effective, you must ask yourself, “l low does this piece of evidence support my main point?” “How can I make [his connection evident to my audience?” Answerng these questions is essen- tially reasoning. This chapter will discuss four types of reasoning: deductive reasoning. inductive reasoning, analogical reasoning, and causal reasoning. You will choose the type of reasoning that best fits the evidence you have colleeled. Deductive Reasoning or a deductive argument starts Willi a widely accepted principle and draws a conclusion about a specific case. ll rrroves li'orrr llrc general to the specific and takes the form of the syllogism. All ol‘yon have probably heard the limrons syllogism: Major Premise: All persons are morlrrl. Minor Premise: Soemles is a person. Conclusion: 'l'lrerelore, Horiales is morlrrl. ,or derlnr‘ln'e rrrrrrrnrerrls, eonsisl ol llrree pzrrls: a major plr‘lllihe, rr mirror premise, rind rr rnnr lrrnrmr The is a general slrlle nrerrl llrrrl is wrrleli rlr'uiplml The is .r speeilre ohseir'rrlioll _ a, M, , ‘ < ‘ ‘ i ‘ \ l4 i, l t-iulil 4\.\-\‘l-l-l—l-\-l— I — rli Strategies for Persuasive Presentations | CHAPTER 10 :rhonl a case and demonstrates that it fits within the general principle. The is a statement that claims your general principle applies to your specific observation or minor premise. Major Premise: Artificial sweeteners are unhealthy. Minor Premise: Diet soft drinks contain artificial sweeteners. Conclusion: Therefore, diet soft drinks are unhealthy. Tips for Using Deductive Arguments l)er|rre|ive arguments are very powerful. If the major and minor prem- r-.e :ne Irne, their the conclusion will naturally follow. Therefore, it is an exlrerrrely slrong type ofargument. In order to ensure \rnrr :nrrlierrce will buy your conclusion, you must ensure lllzrl your audience accepts your major and rrmror premises. As a speaker, you have to determine lrorr widely accepted the major and minor premises rrl your argument are. Will your particular audience ARGUMENTS ARI.‘ .reeepl lhein? If not, you will have to present evi- rlr'rice lo persuade them. Your argument will only be successful ifyour audi- erree agrees with your major and minor premises. If they fail to accept them, \‘on will rrol convince your audience. I .el’s examine the deductive argument in the previous example. Will all audiences hold the attitude that artificial sweeteners are unhealthy? Proba— hlr rrol. || would lake some persuasion on your part lo gel your audience to buy your major premise. TIPS FOR USING |“irsl, \‘orr would wanl to examine some of the FDA- approved :rrlilicirrl sweeleners. Let’s examine one of lliese: r‘\sp:rrlrmre. Then you would have to present premise prool lhrrl Asparlrnne poses polenlial health threats. \orr eonlrl use the lollon'irrg evidence. According to a premise Juno rillll‘lr' lillllll‘rlli‘ll in the journal l'inviromnenlul I ‘ Heidi/i I’vm/rerllrerr, w\*rp.‘rr|.‘rme has been linked lo expl‘Clt lnrillgnrnrl lllllllll‘r. lrrrrplronrrrs, :md leukemias irr lrllr r= llrr ii: rm “:1 ulrrrlren eurnrirrirrg llre herrlllr risks oli Asprrrlrmre llral appeal In llrr' 'lillriil.l'r1‘ hir'rlllllr', Nirrelr' of llrese slrrdies were irrdeperrderrl ulllrlln, and H l'. rrl llnm' lorran Asprrr'lrrme lo he nrrsrrle. Sevenlv lorrr ollllre alirrllrarr urn lnrlrnlrr 'rprrlr'urlr‘rl slrrdies, irrerrrrinrg l|r;rl llre Aspartame irrdns lll lllianl lln ulurlrr .mrl lllll'lir ol llrose slndics demonslmlcd no rrejgzllir'e llfifillll IiMl-n \nrr riorrlrl r orrlrrrrre lo e\pl;rin whal llrrrl rrrearnl lo \‘orrr :rrrrlierrr'c. 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REASONING need \Vl l l [8 TO MAKE SURE they tttt ltth tlllNGS YOU ARE to th rttxtt‘/\lttl\tt_i ARE SlthllAR lN lM PORTANT WAYS. won’t air analogical argument about tw ways is called an Consider the fol downloads are gener to generate revenue for Purdue. We simply cannot assume that we w loads of our local programming or tl seniiriating our products. A local important ways. What works for on Causal Reasoning attempts to esta such that one of ti to lose its las to lose his or The cause precedes the event in time generally Con There is an empirical correlation between the must precede events empirical corr' the relationship is not caused by a third event Pp. (+1“ ,1; . ...t (‘tl ’ Y . As class :Ilh‘ttr llnrd, the relationship hclu‘r'r'll ttre trv sorrrc third event (liahhic. ,lllttl) reasoning well is to m comparing are similar in important ways. Ar roughly the same size? Are the tra g g V Ht 5 C Si] 1 St I 1 HI 6 e C 16 . W 01.] Cl 501] e ()l tile )lOg aliiilliiig 011 t 16 801161 ie events caused or led to tl causal reasoning every day. We try to explain mg every day, it isn’t as simple that one event caused arrotlre following three conditions rrrcarrs that the ake sure the two things you ‘ e the University of Kansas ue Similar in important ways? Are they nsportation ie student populations similar? Are both state—supported universities? Answers ese and otl softl ier questions are important to examine. If your audience doesn’t consider the two things you are comparing similar, then tl b iey e persuaded by your argument. M I aking 0 issues th at are not similar in important lowrng analogical argument: do the same thing with Network. This would be a great wav ould generate the same effects from dowr r- iat iTunes would even be interested iir dis— station and a national station are e Will more than likely not work for the unlike in other. blish a relationship between two events, ie other event. We engage in what caused the football team tgame, or what caused your roorrrrnate her job. Although we irse causal reason-- as it seems. l‘roving I r is difficult to do. We Sider two events carrsally related it the are met. First, the cause the event in time. Second. there is an elation between the events. 'I “his sirnplv two events move together. t'in csaln dance and course grade move together lrlllt'l' lllt‘lt‘ttH(‘.‘1_ Ht) (llK'h [‘tllllM‘ l'ltttli' o events is not torrnd to he the result ol t \K. tr it [fit Ill rlt‘ strategies for Persuasive Presentattons l rat/\Irr‘rar ro imagine that your knee hurts below it rains. and vou proclaim that your knee pain causes rain. (Iritcria one is satislicd: knee pain belorc r'airr. I'ivery tnne \‘oru knee lnrrts it rains. So, with eriteria two, these things move or trap— pcn together. ( Iritcria three asserts the relationship between the two can’t be r arr-mt lr\‘ sonic orrtside variable. This example does not meet criteria three. \oru lorcc pain can he explained by the humidity that occurs prior to rain. the hrunrdrtr associated with the incoming front causes the pain in your knee. TIDI lor Ustng Causal Arguments While the previous example may seem ridiculous, we often fall prey to this it o a III It'.|\t ii iii lg. lust because something occurs before something else docsr r't mean the that evcrrl caused the second. While this is a necessary condition. it Inn't 'allllr'ielrl. In tact, this mistake is so popular there is even a fallacy rrarrrcd h n rt or “after this, therefore, because of this." .\no||rer Lev to remember when making causal arguments is that events sometimes have more than one cause. Consider the following elairir posed by a student in a presentation in this course. She argued that students in schools \\ rlh rrrr Isic programs fared better 011 the ACT and SAT than students in schools \\ rllr no music programs. She contended these two events were causally related. tI t'r ohviorrslv not that simple. Music programs are not direct causes otliighcr -.t.urd:ndiy.ed test scores. Schools with inirsie programs are usually in school tll'dttt'l‘r that are well funded. Students from higher socioeconomic groups go to well lrrrrdcd schools. All of these factors (e.g., economic status, dollar per student spent, etc.) are contributors to higher standardized test scores. It ruu't as 'rlllttih‘ as the student’s speech suggested. ()versimplifying the relation— ship heluccn two events may lead your audience to qucstion your reasoning. there e. no escaping causal reasoning. We engage in it every day. l Iowevcr, it r-. nnportant tor vou to realize that events are rarely so simple. Acknowledging the. tar l in your presentation will be appreciated by your audience. We r.nc|v crlrploy one type of argument in a persuasive atterrrpt. lrrslcad uc true them in combination. 'I'herc is even evidence ofthis within the chap ter ‘llrtox tor e\arnp|c, the deductive argument presented earlier in this section. line dangers ol artilicial sweeteners and cessation of diet soda corrsrrrnptiorr clttphix'r'd a deductive argument as the primary argiunenl. l Ion/ever, llrc major and minor prerrriscs hoth needed additional support. In the example, irrdirc lion and causal reasoning were rrscd lo srrpport the major premise. In order to he perunasivc, you will need to rise these argruncnts in corrrhirratiorr. Fallacies are errors in reasoning You want to .rvoid latlacics in vonr prescnln tron hit two reasons |"ir'.l. lorourruglr usurpv tallacions reasoning is unethical. 247 0.... L; :. LE... :_ 2...... :52... _: 0; _. .. .. 1.... .::._. :. . 7:... I. 0. ._ 70.00.70 0.. <. 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Ifa s bly lead to some disastrous o rat lak— . slope to peaker claims that taking one step will inevita- utcome, then it is a slippery slope. For example: I I allow the university to build a new basketball arena, we will be increas— ing attention on athletics. Students will begin to study less and they won’t in as prepared for the job market. The L I I entire reputation of the universi w'll l ‘ at risk, and we Will go down in the national rankings. ty 1 x if we Reducing the university’s rankin from building a new basketball ar kctball arena wi g within public institutions is far removed ena. It is highly unlikely that building a bas- 11 lead to this series of causal events. False Dilemma A - , also known as a false dichotomy, chorce between two options w plifies the situation when, example: 1 gives the audience a ien there are many more alternatives. It sini— iii reality> the situation is rather complex. l‘irr We either raise tuition or Close all computer labs on campus ()r We either create more community parks or increase in our community. We al iLIVCIIllC delinquency rates will l know that both of these situations aren’t that simple. There cty of ways to redistribute money on campus so that we can contiiii the computer labs without raising tuition. Similarl dependent on a great many other factors than the r rties that are available. are a vari~ ie to hard y, juvenile delinquency is rumber ofrcer'eation laeil— Straw Person The I ‘ . . fallacy is committed when someone ig ' i r I r I ’w n . I resents a person s actual position and substitutes represented version of tlrat position, 7 ' ' I opponent s positron. For example: nores or misrep- a weaker. distorted, or nris« thereby making it easier to refute the Anti—gun organizations want to revoke the Seeorrd /\rrrerrd ‘ I I . rnent :rllo ' AUIIH the right to hear irrrrrs. “m” i ill I I . i t t l l , till}. I” (Hi Ul ill ‘Il lllil Hit" \ I lit ( (i l ( "(Hi ll H ll ll I. l ‘\ l \’ \ I i l Arrrrrrdrnrrrl. llrer rrsnrrllr want in rnererrse periods. and elrrrrrire Ir‘gitlrllttllth reganlrnrrr statement oi gun eulrinrl rrrhnr rtlI'H‘ litit‘lxi'JUlliltl elreeks. waiting urn registration. This is an over ril trr.rl prisitiirll i IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIuuuhhhhhii‘ ‘4 ,I it Strategies for Persuasive Presentations | tiliAl'ierlt it) 251 SPOTIIGHT 0" RESEARCH USING FEAR AND GUILT APPEALS EFFECTIVELY ArI rir'.|rrr| IIrrrI tllt Inn to Iielrinvri your desired ettect n I I Inn in I Hm] [I Ill. I orrsider a popular emotional are mes- AII rirIvI tlrI rl I I Inrrrrunir air) to an audience that they irrII arm “I rill ilI I i I ‘.r Irnn negative event that will be n-IrIIanIly liii| III II rurrni. they are commonly used In lrrII Ililr I run] II ruins, and you have seen them in put Ilt> IiIInIrI II IrrrnI )ttlli Irrrronts. An extremely pop nl-rr lm II or Ir II II it we. usod in the late lQ80s and .ciru IlIIuiIrnIIIl II» atop drug usage. It showed an n.“ with Irrr Ilillli tiltii t‘l Irxelaiming, "This is your lIrI tlil " llll‘ III it] l‘I ilrIIn t't(1(‘.l(ed and dropped into It in It lr ,IinIr pr in, Irnrl it begins to sizzle and try. tIIII IrnrrI IirrrI IIr tlrI-n proelaims, "And this is your lIrI rirr IIn IlrrrI in /\ny questions?” The thought Oi .Inr |IrI rrrr '.I.'.'lrrrr| in Ir prin is a scary picture. The III l I li 'lllillr rly I Ilir ill‘n ". it all. i “ll VVriiI», Ii prolossor and communication rIInIII rrI lrIIr, llll‘I IIIrrrrIl tlrril three things must be rIrIw-nt in Ir ll'rll (tlriithl in order to be persua- til r' Ir‘l il, ll‘l It I It ii )(‘(tlfa. arm llt’Il, IlrII IippI-Iil rnnnt arouse tear in the inrlrnn. .I ‘.t-rt.nrl, tlin (iurliorreo must recog- ru 'II IIII r| llii‘y I “II urr'iI «Irrlililrr to the threat. third, ii ttIIr'Il lII~ IrI IIIrIrpIrrriI»Il lty . In other IIrIlu llrII IrrrIrr'l IrnIlrI-nI (‘ rnnsl leel that they IrrII I rl in i I I IIIIlI run the nu orrrrnondod response in t|III ilirIIIri 'IlrIv lrrl'. lIInrrIl lorrr appeals that lit IIIrIlII lrlllII IliItIrrl on In w to avoid the threat rrrw lriilII quIII'm III tIrrrrrI. Irl persuasive out IIIiriIr'. lHt l"‘||l|'|ll', 'Itlnlrly ‘rlrrrWitrg Ct blOCk, .lrruniLIn IrirIl IlI'II'rr'u‘rl ‘IrrrIrlxI-r's lung to an "out ttnr rlrrU audience oi smokers does little to stop the (till it ence from smoking. But it you also oxplriirr to the audience how they can quit srrrokingr rind repair the damage already done. to thrill lunIr'I, you will be more successtul in your pI-n.nIrr.iwr goal. are ottcn usod in (rrll HVHlY day lives as well. Who hasn't triIrIl III Iiuilt their roommate into going out wlrIIn llrrry roI llly don’t want to or guilt your parents into giving you a little extra allowance? 'llrrrrII is. (t [lltUtl reason why we use guilt to pnrsuridn ()llltti'r it works! However, in a reeorri liti‘ltlittiitly‘ri'I, Dan O’Keete, a persuasion rosrrrin lrIIr, lIIrrnIl an interesting caveat to the guilt rippIIIrl IIII lound that while more explicit guilt oppIIIilr. IlII in tact elicit greater leelings ol guilt in Ir tIrIIiIIt audience than less explicit opporils, IlrIIy Iirn less likely to result in persuasion. I‘m, in it’llti‘I I ll guilt appeals, it is better to ho. (t lrit i‘rllltlll‘ llrI in to hit your audience over the lrrirtrl lx’IIrnIInrluIr these strategies when you are plIrrrnrrrIr yIIur persuasive presentations, O'Keeie, D. ‘l, (’ZOOOl. Guilt and :.III rrrl lillltlrnrr i) ll. M. E. Rololt (Ed), Cornrrrurrieotir>rr itIIrrlI. Ir it ‘,'I (pp, l733l. Thousand Oaks, VA: .‘Irrrlrr Wiito, K., & Alton, M. 0.000). /\ nintrnrnrrlynin IIl tear appeals: Implication lor ollr-I'trvo pul >|iI hIIIrlth campaigns, Health Education rrrrrl llIrlrIrvrI Ir, .' ' SQl-Olf). e. .r lallaev in whielr an irrelevant topie is inserted into the dis» Irr'winrr In Ilnert .rIIr-rrliorr away hour the real issue. 'l'he lirllaey gets its name how l'nigh'dr lm hrrrrls. 'l‘lre larrrrer‘s, in an eilor‘i to keep his hunters and Mn u lnrrlrul'. trIrrn running through their erups. wurrld dragrr smoked herring n rth .r aiming Inlrrr along; the edge oi their lielils. 'l'lris ()(liil threw the drugs (ill Iri tln I.I I III Hi the l()\ and kept them lrrrrn destroying their erops. liii' rrrrr\er‘.rt\ Wants to inr-reirsr the math requirement in the lli'trllllitlll y'err Ir.r| r=IluI.rlrIur plrnr lion Iii” \\’l‘ rte-Inns general r'rhlr'illlrrrr I('r|illll'lll('tli‘- \\iil'l| parlour: I'I um [I an r-mne on the. r irrnpnnr‘ 252 (:I IN" ' ' tions CHAPTER 10 253 “CR 10 [ Strategies for Persuasive Presentations Strateq'es f°r Persuas've Presenta l Politicians are often guilty ofthe red herring fallacy. In order to avoid contro— versial issues such as gun control, they will often change the subject so that they will not have to answer a question on a Notice how the Daiai Lama is clearly passionate and conveying strong emotion Hi this presentation. Throuuii the use of gestures and facial expression, the audience feels his passion. potentially controversial issue. { Using Pathos in Your Presentation Appeals to , or appeals to emotion, are used in order to generate sad— ness, fear, elation, guilt, sympathy, or another emotion on the part of your audience. Emotional appeals add heart to your presentation. They can make a presentation more compelling, and they can EMOTlONAl. APPEALS actually enhance learning and memory (Doerk— ADD H PART TO YOUR sen & Shimamura, 2001). Emotional appeals l’ltliSlfiNTA’l‘lUN. are especially important in speeches ofpoliey or value. By arousing the emotions of your aucti— ence members, it is easier to build identification with them. Some common emotions aroused in presentations include fear, anger, guilt, regret, ad tion, sympathy, and pride. mira— Bc careful not to overdo it. A few emotionally charged words can go a long; way for the audience. Overdoing it can draw the attention of the audi— rin‘c awhy from the message and onto the words themselves. Therefore, use ivoan ilial pack emotion with restraint. How can you effectively incorporate emotional appeals into your pre— sentations? Emotional appeals can be communicated through language, supporting evidence, and delivery. Let’s examine each one ofthese in the fol— lowing sections. Supporting Evidence 'l 'ln- nsc oi narratives or extended examples to support your points can have .i ,‘(ifill emotional impact on an audience. Narratives and extended examples pull audiences into your presentations and naturally grow out of the content oi your presentation. The example that follows shows how Abigail involved ll('| audience emotionally in her presentation. a former COM 114 student: In March 1989, oil from an Exxon Valdez tanker spilled into the prisiin Prince William Sound, dumping ll million gallons of oil into one of Alas ka’s most diverse ecosystems. Because it happened in the spring, nature's time of renewal, the results were tragic. Twenty—eight hundred sea otters, 300 ill“ bor seals, and 900 bald eagles, the symbol of American freedom, were l\'ill(‘(l, Monica Jasmin was 6 months pregnant with her second son, Luke. She was being very careful about the food she was eating. She avoided caffeine and stayed away from unpasteurized cheeses. She thought she was eating; nutri- lionsli' when she chose a turkey sandwich from a «Ir-l: i|l|\' at her office. However, the turkey sand- \ili‘ll that Monica ate was infested with [lis/eria nniliiu'i‘logcucs, a bacterium ilIal can cause the By choosing certain words and phrases, the horror of this li'agcdv becomes more real for the audience. Had Kelly chosen to deliver lll<‘ npcn ing ofher presentation in the following way, the impact would not liavc l)('(‘|l lll(‘ sanic: Amystoehr Executive Vice President ili'u‘J'a‘ Lislcriosis. On December l-‘llll. slic dcvcl‘ st POWERO Systems, Inc illll'il .l lever and scvci‘c muscle pain. ll(‘l liusliaud T.“ "0”." Punk "I." u ‘l‘un iuuln-d lici'ioiln-liospiialdini |l\\‘l|‘1l(l(|l;li(‘. I IX orlnnco. I , . I .\l ii iii .I.III, slic lost llii'll l);ill\‘. linlw pun"! P In March l‘lh"), ilu' l‘.\\on \alilcx hpllli‘tl ll million gallons oi oil into l'Inn i' \Villiain Hound, lilllun', thousand . .. ,. r, . . -- i " ",‘NHM‘ s ol naln'c spccics lllli:ll)llllli'_ lln- .uca iii ii‘inn', Ilns lI.IiI.llI\i . «\lllizilll I‘o ~ll'li lil AlillllIl "'1 ‘ “"‘l'm'dl 1‘ ‘l ' Gin-maul 'l'lic liisl opciiini; has .i llllil'll ‘illililw‘l iinpai'l on iln' aildicin'c lli‘i‘illlfii‘ Ill lli‘l .Iliilit‘lli’r. 'I'liis sloii' Illil‘n a lili'l‘ on .i llllll' lxllll\’i'll liul puicniialli' il(‘\’:|.'i oi iln- detail and ilic i‘tliilliiill.ill\ i liana'd words that l\'(<l|\‘ sclwicd, Lauri! illnw. that (an ili‘i‘lli ii||\l|illl‘ in alnnnr |l\ nialtinig ll‘i |i‘l.lli‘ inou' lo i g. .. l l 254 CHAPTER 10 l Strategies for Persuasive Presentations ’ ""7 I 7’ Strut-ales for Persuasive Presentatlonl | (ill/\I"l'|i'.lt in 255 l the toplc’ we are more inVOlVCd and IDOth’dted l0 process her presentation on I lo iii-lion \i'illioiil involving his or her ciiiolioiis. \( )l I \l ll it H I) It] I RAIN food-borne illness. Without this vivid example, her speech would not have ’ "i a lll'vl lt‘lllt‘llll)(‘|‘, all persuasive speeches should l Rt )M tlfxlNki | Mk )I It )NAI had the iml)aCt She was hoping £013 a lll‘ liiiill on evidence and sound reasoning. l‘llllO- /\|'|’l /\l 5 WI II' N /\l M NH .\\ | Ni.“ _ w I Iioiial appeals should never be used in place of (llllh l IONS Uli l'/\‘ 7 '- Dehvery logic and good evidence. Emotion can also be communicated through the delivery of your presenta- I - tion. By incorporating pauses, facial expressions, and vocal variety into your I e presentation, you can also move your audience, speak from you, hear, and I 1 your audience will feel your message. By demonstrating conviction and h0n_ p I I I 1Esty, the language choices and narratives you have Chosen will come alive ' l'llll't‘lHIt' reasoning w1lIl have aIstrong Impact on the sIuccess (I)f yopr preseiiI or your audience. Remember if 0 r - . . |.ilioii t is important 1 lat you earn row to use appea s to pat ios, ogos, aui tional appeals are likely to fall’fla: u don t speak With COHVICUOH’ your emo‘ (I 7 Mine. \iell, ’Ililxing advantage of credibility by working on your competence I I and | |i.ii;ie|ei will cause an audience to view your presentation more favor— Visual Aids fl r ; ill)l\ ( l|(‘(lll)llllI\‘ isn’t enough. You must also appeal to the intellect of your Sometimes the adage “a picture IS worth a thousand words” IS IIIICI Imagme II I I. audience by using longis logiIe.ExamineIyourIevidcncT clIoIsIeIly and use lllt‘ that You are trying to Persuade Your classmates to donate time or resourcest Ill“. lll “inwmng llm “ml/67 (e. Hall/C7 911361 7 01 and Oglm l. l Ml ll .llmhl the local humane society A descri hon of the h 0 (1 ~ / elleelu'e llJl' your type of supporting materlal. Remember to avoid fallacies as TIPS FOR ENHANCING less animals in our community Is EOI Head as 0316' I I you eriiisli‘uel your arguments. [hey can be devastating to your presentation. PATHOS pelhng as the Pictures of these anImaIs Ill/Ir I COT‘ ( , i I‘ inalh‘. don t lIoi'get the impact of pathos, or the emotional appeal. It can be BaIan I describe how matted dI I ' WW; 0 I I : lllllll‘ compelling when combined w1th the other types of reasoning. llow- . ce emOtlonalfappeals . ’ Irty’ and thm Maxr a lOVable t I (‘\('|, \’()lll use ol this appeal should be guided by good ethics. W'th appeals to logic mixed breed, was at the time of his rescue wouldn’t I Use emotionally charged do his situation justice, Only a picture of Max could (it " l 7 Words caremlly adequately communicate his condition when found 1 Use vivid narratives rich in by the local shelter. l e a 3::aIl/lIsuaI aIds snag/2311:1513; 1:10;:rtisecan be powerful tools of per— ( I’ll = c\iiiilot;ieal reasoning Ilasty generalization I ’ Y 31ml” tOO graphlc for your l _ Anguinenl :id lioiiiiiiem Inductive reasoning Use vocal variety alldleflCC. Gruesome pictures of animal cruelty or i’ r! i llilllil\\‘.‘lt'_(lll Initial credibility human suffering may be too much for an audience I g ( Linmil ir-asoniug Invalid analogy but WOHII OVCIWI I to handle. Choose pictures that convey yorir point t we a ( IIIHIIIIIIIIIII Logos 1e m your audlence. g. I; ( Inwlihilih Major premise Enhancing the Use of Pathos l Ii I. i I l’i’tllll‘llH' reasoning Minor premise I I ,l m Iii-med eiedilnlity l’athos Serious debate concerning the ethics of emotional alpheals has ensued for i ; l'illlt‘lt“ P0“ ll‘K‘v “rt-5" l’ml’l“r l""' Iinany years. Some scholars advocate never using emotional appeals at all. l W l _ l'llll'” Rc‘l l'cr'l‘m they argue that emotional appeals have led to horrible human suffering. I l‘i\l“"l""‘ Slll’l’c'y 5MP" After all, Hitler used emotional appeals to promote hatred. l J i l‘illl.ll‘\‘ Straw person AS long “3 ClllOllmlill appeals are balanced Willi appeals to louie, it is . i l‘lll'W 'lll“””"l| Silluaiw perfectly aceeplahle lo usc them. Make sure that they are appropriall- lo the l I l‘l‘"” "I’lmll‘ ll""'“l“"l """lll’lllll' topic you are addressiini. You Will he Illilllx‘l‘l)’ lo more an audience iiieniliei (hull appeals ’liiinlii'oilliiness I . l I a If ,. i i 256 CHAPTER 10 l Strategies for Persuasive Presentations Aristotle. Rhetoric. R. Roberts, Trans). New York: Modern Library. Babbie, E. (2001). The practice ofsocial research. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Bradley, P. H. (1981). The folk—linguistics of women’s speech: An empirical examination. Communication Monographs, 48, 73—90. Doerksen, S., & Shimamura, A. P. (2001). Source memory enhancement for j ‘i ‘- l 3 emotional words. Emotion, 1, 5—11. Falcione, R. L. (1974). The factor structure of source credibility scales for immediate superiors in the organizational context. Central States Speech Iournal, 25, 63—66. Greene, I. (1984). Speech preparation processes and verbal fluency. Human Communication Research, 11, 61—84. [ournal 6 Courier. (2007, April 1). Road improvement: What roads need improved and why?, p. A1 1. McCroskey, ]. C. (2000). An introduction to rhetorical communication. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. O’Keefe, D. (2000). Cuilt and social influence. In M. E. Roloff (Ed), Communication Yearbook 21 (pp. 1—33). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. O’Keefe, D. I. (2002). Persuasion: Theory and research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Street, R. L., Jr, 81 Brady, R. M. (1982). Speech rate acceptance ranges as a function of evaluative domain, listener speech rate and communication context. Communication Monographs, 49, 290—308. Struckman-Iohnson, D., & Struckman—Iohnson, C. (1996). Can you say condom? It makes a difference in fear—arousing AIDS prevention public service announcements. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26, 1068—1083. Witte, K, & Allen, M. (2000). A meta—analysis of fear appeals: Implication for effective public health campaigns. Health Education and Behavior, 27, 591—615. ,. I r l _, 1' I I ,. ' I ,. I , I a” I ,1, I It, I v , ll ., . I I I I ' ...
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