#22 - Outlining the Presentation

#22 - Outlining the Presentation - 2‘ La aim: at: x m .1...

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Unformatted text preview: 2‘ La aim: at: x m .1 .4 CHAPTER OBIECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should be able to: u n u u .- Explain why outlining is important to an effective presentation. Explain the differences between a preparation outline and a speaking outline. Construct a preparation outline following the guidelines presented in this chapter. Construct a speaking outline following the guidelines presented in this chapter. 154 (IttAttt'ttlt '7 I Outtlnlnq tho Prountatton ’— tliis elass a few years ago, landed a labulous job at I'ISl'N itltel aliou. Within a couple of months at the broadcasting network. he was ed to (lelivera presentation to some clients. Zach had done well in this class ind felt confident in hisabilily to speak effectively. Afterprepariuga slick l'owei lide show, which included digitized video, and conducting uumelous interviews with leading authorities on his subject, Zach thought he was thin oiiglily prepared After the big event, Zach was very disappointed with the way the preseu tation had gone. He felt the speech was flat, and it was obvious to him lrom the questions the audience asked that they didn’t understand and follow all of the points in his presentation. His audience seemed confused and unable to follow the main ideas in his presentation. The organization ofthe pl‘eseir tation had not been clear, and Zach felt embarrassed and humiliated. After processing what went wrong during the presentation and not being able to discern where he had lost his audience, he became frustrated and decided to seek advice. Zach called his public speaking instructor, and she agreed to meet with him to talk about the presentation. She asked him to bring in all of the materials he used to prepare and deliver the talk. As they started to go through the material, she asked him if she could see his ou|~ line. Zach replied that he didn’t write one because he thought he had passed that stage and didn’t need to do that anymore. Well, that was Zach’s funda— mental error. The outline is the tool speakers ofall levels use to envision and critique their entire presentation. It helps ensure the organization of the pre- sentation is clear and balanced, that transitions are natural and smooth, that the flow is logical and progressive, that content is supported by evidence from credible sources, that the amount of material reflects the time you will have, and that you will be able to adapt flexibly to the moment if so required. 'I 'his was the one crucial mistake Zach made in preparing his presentation and explains why his audience was unable to follow the presentation. Without a blueprint, Zach’s presentation inherently lacked a structure and his audi— ence became lost. Zach learned the hard way that he skipped over the most important step. The outlining stage of the Speech preparation process is crucial. With out drafting a blueprint, it is hard to envision a speech, which can lead to many unexpected events. As we will discuss in this chapter, the outline stage determines if all the decisions you have made thus far in the presentation will work together. Outttnlnq tho Presentation | (tttAtVl‘lttt 7 WHY OUTLINING IS IMPORTANT Hue eompliiiul students often make about speeeh preparation is the pro-n « ol uniting the outline. Students often find this step challenging and leel Il t-;ui be time eousumiug. This chapter is designed to walk you through eaeh ol the steps ofpreparing both your preparation outline and your speak— mi; outline. After reading this chapter and working through the guide— lines, you will find that outlining is not as difficult as you may have initially thought. The outline is the blueprint of your entire presentation and is the tool that ensures your decisions in the planning process have been adequate. The outline lays the foundation for everything you want to accomplish during the speeeh. If something is wrong in this initial design, your presentation Will likely suffer. I i()iice you have selected your topic, purpose, and thesis; determined \‘our main ideas; conducted your research; and begun crafting the introduc— tion and conclusion of your presentation, you are ready to test this plan by examining the design through a preparation outline. The outline is the ini- llttl representation of your content. It allows you the first opportunity to adapt the presentation to the audience. If you skip this step, you will have missed a vital opportunity to analyze your speech in terms of the audience. Through the outline, you will organize what you will say in the presentation, how you will introduce the material, how you will arrange main points, how you will support those points, and how you will conclude the presentation. It can be best thought of as a tool to determine whether the choices you have made thus far in the planning process are effective and whether you will need to resolve any problem areas. Ensures Organization ( hit) of the most important functions of the outline is to ensure clear organi- zation. By examining the way the main points and supporting material work together, you can determine whether the organizational pattern you have selected is the most appropriate for the material, the audience, and the goal ol your presentation. Clear organization often characterizes a well-received pit-sentation, since audiences perceive organized speakers as more credible ;l| ul become frustrated by those presentations that lack organization (Sharp & l\le(iluug, 1966). 155 156 CHAPTER 7 t Outlining the Presentation Balances the Presentation The preparation outline is a mechanism that ensures . in other words, it prompts you to make sure all your main points are complete and ,I\ t ‘t )MMr )Nl Y [1511) that they are adequately developed. Each main r .‘t III M 1 IN] IS t'] [A I‘ point should be covered in approximately the same tt\t I tti )I )t it ' I it )NS amount of detail. For example, you would want to WI it it It It |‘/\t\.t- lJt‘ /\t%()ttti avoid a lengthy explanation of main point num— ltt [’1 [U 'I N |' Mt it Hi ber one and cursory coverage of main point mun- l't~il \l N l/\l It tN flMtQ her two. From a preparation outline, even a brief H l lll l k if )M ilVUSlONS glance will provide basic visual clues about how I \l I "\l'“ if f l S [if “LTNT‘ balanced your presentation will be. If your second Amy Stoehr rrrairr point fills up halfa page and your third main point runs just two serr- tcnces, you quickly will have identified a problem with balance. From your outline, you can also measure the length ofyour introduction and conclusion relative to the body of the speech. Identifies Evidence The outline also provides an opportunity for you to check and see whether each point has been supported with appropriate research material. If your rrrain points do not have research supporting the claims you make, you will lose credibility and find it difficult to achieve the goals of your presentation. The outline also allows you to ensure that your research has been adequately cited within the presentation. A good guideline is that every point or subpoint should have at least one type ofsupporting evidence. Assesses Quantity One of the most restrictive factors of the presenta- tional situation is the time constraint to which the Executive Vice President I‘MR POWERo Systems, Inc. Outlining the presentation is key. ' , It you have a solid outline, then IV you In eble to make adjustments, en the fly for time constraints. Outlines eneure that key points net ‘ communicated. ‘ speech must adhere. The outline can roughly indi- cate how much material you have and how long it will take you to cover it. With experience, you will be able to use the outline as a very precise gauge of how long your presentation will run. It is impor— tant to note here that it is a speaker’s ethical obliga- tion to understand how nruclr linre he or stre has to speak and to fill tlral tirrre appropriately. Audiences place a high value on their own tirrre and expect loget their “money's worth" when listening to a speaker. They may heeorrre reserrtlul when speakers take advantage oftlre situation by speaking longer or shorter than expected. Outlining the Presentation | (amount 7 Allows for Flexibility tine ol the most irrrportarrt benefits to speaking from an outline rather than a manuscript or fronr memory is the flexibility an outline provides. When the presentation isn’t committed to an exact stream ofwords, sentences, and paragraphs, it affords you the adaptability needed to make adjustments dur- rrrp, the presentation. This flexible nature ofan outline will allow you to adapt to the specific needs ofthe audience and the situation. Allows for instructional Feedback to the classroom situation, the outline is the only chance you will have to get feedback from your instructor before you deliver the actual graded presen— tation. In an English course, you can submit various versions of your actual paper and get feedback before your final draft is due. Presentations don’t lend themselves to this same process. There is simply not enough time during the ('t H r rse ofthc semester for students to present “rough drafts" of their presenta— tions. Although this situation would be ideal, there simply isn’t enough time. 't 'trerefore, the more detail you can provide on your outline, the more feed— back you can get on how to improve the content of your presentation. This means showing where you cite material, where and what you will use for a visual aid, internal summaries and previews, as well as a complete bibliogra— phy. Now that you know the importance of the presentational outline, let’s exarrrinc its format and features. FORMATTMIMG THE PREPARATlfiN DUTUNE ‘t'lrr- ‘ ‘r s is a very detailed representation of the speech. It in earclully constructed and has a variety of features. The following sections identity each of the features that needs to be included in your presentation outline. Full Sentences The preparation outline is written in full sentences. Every aspect of the out— tirrc is written in complete sentences: rrrain points, subpoints, sub—subpoints, and transitions. This forces you to be specific about the elairrrs you will make in your speech and ensures that your presentation will be more focused and to the point. ( )rre maxim worth hecdinl; in this situation is, "It you can't say it, you don't know it." In other Words, it you have trouble :tt‘ll(‘lll:lllill'_\’Ultl ideas in your outline. it will be impossible lodo no nr the presentation. It you can't 157 158 (IliAl'i‘I'iR ‘/ | Outllninq the Presentation onlline il, you simply do not have a solid grip on your material. One sen- tence per point is adequate. The point is not to write out the entire speech word for word, but to clearly state your main ideas. Let’s look at an example: Ineffective: 1. Sleeping habits Better: I. Sleep is being widely neglected among individuals aged 18 to 35 in today’s society. The ineffective main point doesn’t tell us much. What about sleeping hab— its? Whose sleeping habits? This main point doesn’t have focus or direction. it has not been clearly articulated. The more effective example has been I M i ln.l( )I WRITE MORE THAN expressed as a complete sentence. Notice the i *I‘ H \1 Ni iiNCE PER ENTRY difference in clarity from the ineffective exam- ( iN [ H 1; BO DY OF TH E ple. The direction ofthis Inain point is clear and OUT LlNli- more precise. The complete sentence tells us exactly what direction the main point is heading. lhe Ineffective version would likely result in a rambling, imprecise speech. Writing your outline in complete sentences will help alleviate this problem. Appropriate Symboiization The format for the outline follows the common alphanumeric system. You will designate main points with Roman numerals (1., 11., 111.), supporting points with capital letters (A., B., C.), subpoints with Arabic (regular) num— bers (1., 2., 3.), and sub-subpoints with lowercase letters (a., b., 0.). Basically, you will proceed from the most important ideas to the least important. The structure for the body of the presentation looks something like this: 1. Main Point One A. Supporting Point 1. Subpoint 2. Subpoint B. Supporting Point 11. Main PointTwo A. Supporting Point 1. Subpoint :1. Sub—snbpoini l), Snbsnbpoinl 3. Subpoint ll. Sinipuilnngl’nnll (I. Snppmlnligl’nnul l. Snlnpninl Hill-pun” _._—_.t. Outlining the Presentation | (.‘llAl”l’lv‘.I( 7 Effective Subordination ( )ne of “K: primary reasons for preparing the outline is to examine and cri— liqne lllC relationship between your claims and your supporting evidence. This makes sure that you have sound reasoning and helps the audience fol- low your presentation. Each claim you make should be supported by evi— (l(‘l rec. Simply stated, the idea of Ineans that all the first—level poinls or main points are supported by supporting points, called And subpoints are supported by sub—subpoints so that each subordinate point snpporls the idea under which it is indented. Basically, it is a method ofphys— nnll\' indenting material so that the relationship among ideas becomes clear and becomes visually apparent. Let’s examine the example below. 1. Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the United States (The Morning Call, March 3, 2002). A. According to a December 12, 2001, article in the Journal ofthe American Medical Association, “Being overweight is the most common health problem facing US. children” (pg. 2845). B. 15.3% of US. children are overweight (American Obesity Association, 2005). C. Obesity in children has increased for all age, race, and sex groups since 1970. 1. The biggest increase in obesity, however, is among African American and Hispanic children, up 120%. 2. There was a 50% increase in obesity among White children. D. Not only did the number of children who were overweight increase, but also the severity of the obesity increased as well. As is demonstrated in this excerpt ofa sample outline, each of the subpoints serves to support or further illuminate or explain the point above. Take, for example, subpoint C. This statement supports and further explains the obe- sin epidemic for children in the United States. It provides further clarifi- enlion by explaining that this is an epidemic for all age and race groups. Subpoinl (I is further supported by sub—subpoth 1 by the explanation llml illis slalisiie has increased most for African American and Hispanic eliildren. Coordinated Points In :Iddiliun lo snlmnlinnlion. II in nnpollunl llml your nlllline lollow |||e I’nles lIII ('HlHiliIlilllUH. iln‘ull'. llml the ideas ;Il ll|(' mnne level nl Iinpnll.‘nree '-l|lll|l(l line the Millie n'lnmnl ulnlmlxnnd, llieielnng lH' indenled 159 160 enmvnai 7 | Outltnlnq the Prountutton at the same level. Consider the main points in the following example in H speech about food safety: I. Wash hands and cooking surfaces often. It. Don’t cross-eonlaminate various food products. III. Cook and store foods at proper temperatures. 'I'his particular example outlines guidelines to follow for managing ltttttl salely, and each oflhcse steps is as important as the next in terms ol ])|(‘\’(‘ttl ing lood—lmrne illness. I‘iach ofthcse main points is equal in terms of impoi lance. Violating any one of these rules for food safety could result in tood poisoning. 'I'hcreforc, they should all be at the same level in the oiilline. 'I'he next step in preparing this outline would he to add supporting mate rial. If we add supporting material to each of these main points, it is impoi tant that we insert it at the appropriate level. We would not want Slll)|)t)t|tl /\ under main point 1 “Hands should be washed with soap. . . to he a sep arale main point. It serves to support main point I by providing a speeilie example ofhow to wash hands properly. It is supporting material and should therefore be inserted at the appropriate spot—sul)ordiirate to main point I. l. Wash hands and cooking surfaces often. /\. Hands should be washed with soap for a minimum of 20 seconds. B. Use paper towels instead ofkit‘chen towels to clean cooking surfaces. It. Don’t cross—contaminate various food products. A. Separate raw meat from other food in the shopping cart. B. Use one cutting board for meat and another for vegetables. I”. Cook and store foods at proper temperatures. A. Make sure there are no cold spots in food where l)ae|eria can hide. It. Leftovers should be refrigerated within 2 hours of use. l'iaeh of the supporting details adds to the main point it follows by lnrthel elaborating on the ideas it presents. Specific Purpose and Thesis Statements It is important to inelude your speeifie purpose statement and you: thesis statement at the top of \’ttt|| outline. /\|tel all, these an- the oreiaiehing goals ol yoln speeeh. l'l\’(‘t\‘ derision that will make ahout what to inelnde in the piesentation should enhanee these goals. So when thinking almut inelud ing a point oi a pie: e at nippoiting maleiial. l(‘l('| hack to the speeilie ||ttt Outllnlnq the Presentatlon | onAivnat 7 161 Good presentations It‘ly on thorough iesoan ll. pn'a‘ and thesis statement. if the material will assist in achieving these goals on hide Ill ll not, leave it out. Tranltttons ate the elements that make your speech flow and enable your .nuhenr e lo toltow your presentation. are used ln-tu een main poiiils to let the audience know that you are moving from one idea to another te.g., Now that we have discussed the causes of eating disor— lll‘l'-, let's examine some ofthe treatments). mark the exact place III the upeeeh hy alerting the audience to their exact location in the presen-- lalion (t~.g.,'|'he lirst eause . . . ;'|'hemost important point . . . ;lnsunl tt|.|t\' . . ;). are transitions used within main points and .ileil listeners ol what lies ahead (e.g., 'l'here are many different eanses ol eatiniv disoideis: media repiesenlalions, eoneein with hodv Image, and issues . 162 (III/\t"l'I-'.t< '/ | Outltnlnq the Presentation ol self—esteem. Let’s begin by focusing on media representations). or summaries are also located within main points and simply restate the main ideas of a main point (e.g., We have examined three causes of eating disorders: media representations, concern with body image, and self—esteem.) Remember, internal previews and reviews are only necessary when a main point is extremely complex or there are a lot of ideas for the audience to keep up with. It is important to include all transitions, regardless of type, in your preparation outline. You are more likely to include your tran— sitions in your actual presentation when they are part of your outline. Reference Page A comprised of the sources you consulted to construct the outline makes the preparation outline complete. The reference page will include any books, magazine articles, newspaper articles, pamphlets and bro— chures, personal interviews, and Web resources. (Check with your instruc- tor to see ifWeb pages are appropriate supporting material.) Use (American Psychological Association) to format your reference list. It is important that the citations are complete and consistent. You can go to the following Web sites for advice on using APA: The American Psychological Association style site httpi/www.apastyle.org/elecref.html or Purdue Univer- sity's ()nline Writing Lab http://owl.english.purdue.edu/. A complete exam- ple of a reference page is provided at the end of the chapter. PUTTING THE GUTLENE TOGETHER The next few paragraphs will walk you step by step through the process of cre- ating an outline that follows the appropriate format. Step One: Start by writing your specific purpose statement and your thesis statement at the top of your outline. It will look something like this: Specific Purpose Statement: To inform my audience about the origins of photomicrography. Thesis Statement: Pliot‘omicrograpl1y is an intriguing type ol photography with interesting origins in biology and photography. Step 'I'n‘o: Ilemn In labeling yoin introdnelion, body, and tittll llmon 'l'hi‘. enslnes that eaeh ol these eolnponents null he an hated Ill \‘(itll presentation, Outllntnq the Presentatlon I (:nAv'nm 7 Introduction Body Conclusion Step Three: Go back and add Roman numerals for all of the Step Four: Step |"ivc: components of each of these elements (introduction, body, conclusion). Introduction I. Attention-Getter ll. Credibility Statement Ill. Relate Topic to Audience IV. Thesis Statement Body 1. Main Point One 11. Main Point Two III. Main Point Three Conclusion I. Restatement of Thesis ll. Clincher Next, go back and outline the body of the presentation. The body should always be constructed before the introduction or conclusion, since your introduction and conclusion will reflect the body of the presentation, once you are certain of it. Begin by adding the main points. Use capital Recall that a subpoth is ALSOT content that supports a main point. Sometimes it may also be necessary to add sub— subpoints in a presentation. If you need this extra level of detail, simply add Arabic numbers (1., 2., 3.). It is important that you recognize that at this step you are dividing your main points into subpoints. Add transitions between each of your main points. If you have internal transitions such as internal summaries or previews, mark those as well. Adding the transitions into the preparation ontline increases the likelihood that you will use them (hiringI lhe presentation. 163 THT: RULE IS. It: YOU DIVIDE. YOU NEED AT LEAST TWO PARTS. THEREFORE, YOU appropriate subpoints to your CAN NOT HAVE AN A WITHOUT A [3. IF YOU HAVE letters to insert the subpoints. A l, YOU MUST HAVE A 2. 164 Step Six: Step Seven: Step ltiight: Step Nine: Slep'l'eu: (Ill/\l"i'ir‘.l( '/ | Outiinlnq the Presentation Once you have arranged your main points and transitions irrlo llre standard format, you are ready logo back and add your external source citations. This ensures ilral you cite appropriately during your presentation. Write out your introduction and conclusion. Once the body has been finalized, you are in good shape to finish these important elements. Simply insert the nralerial irrio the appropriate place in the outline. Speakers feel llre most anxious during the introduction ofa presentation (Bchnke & Sawyer, 2001; Firm, Sawyer, & Behnke, 2003; Freeman, Sawyer & Behnke, 1997). Therefore, it is perfectly acceptable to write out the introduction word for word. This way ifyour anxiety is heightened, you won’t be required to think on your feet by speaking externporaneously. Sometimes, it can actually reduce anxiety to memorize the introduction of the presentation. As explained in Chapter 4, the conclusion is a vital element in the success of the presentation. Research has shown that the information an audience hears last can have a powerful impact on them (Kahana 81 Howard, 2005). This impact is called the reeency effect. Because of the power of the recency effect, you should also write out your conclusion word for word as well. Don’t leave your final comments to chance; plan an ending that will make an impact on your audience. Create your bibliography. Recall that the bibliography completes the outline. Use a consistent style of citation. For this class it is required that you use APA style. Once you have completed your outline, you are ready to finalize the entire presentation. Check for each of the following components: :: Audience analysis—relevance :: Symmetry :: Balance :: l'lxler‘ual sour'ees/srrpporlirrg material :: Requirements olillre assignment It you are asked to provide a litle lor your presentation, do rim last iou probably won't need one lor classroom liii‘NI'illrlllHll‘i 'l‘rtles olien are inrporlarrl it your prem‘iilrtlrorr wrll Ire lislr‘tl in a program or arrrroirrreed in some “in ‘l’illen alrorrlrl be Irriel, yet erre;rp-.ul.rte the mirror trim ol \rrlii pu-ur-rrtalron Outlining the Presentation | errArvr'rm 7 THE SPEAKING OUTLINE /\|ter finalizing your preparation outline, you are ready to begin constructing the speaking outline. The speaking outline consists of the notes you wrll actu- ally use to deliver your speech. It is important to remember that the speakrng outline is merely a tool to jog your memory. By the time of your presenta— tion, you will have rehearsed your speech so many times that you w111 know the material cold. The speaking outline will function primarily as a memory aid and as a gauge to remind you of where you are during the presentation. /\i this point, you are probably wondering exactly what you should include in your speaking outline and how it should look. Speaking outlines are very idiosyncratic. Each individual has certain items they like to include,‘ and llrose they prefer to omit. As you gain more experience making presentatrons, you will develop a style that works best for you. Until you gain this expen— euee, here are some guidelines that will help you get started. Guidelines for the Speaking Outline He Brief In order to maintain extemporaneous delivery, it is important to keep the speaking outline brief. Unlike the preparation outline, the speaking out— line eousisls of key words, phrases, and abbreviations. If your notes are too 165 Notice the extempor alreoli'. style of the speaker allow, him to adapt and identity with his audience. 166 (lltAl"t‘|Illt 7 l Outllnlnq the Presentation detailed, you will have trouble makingr eye contact and, therefore, connec— tions with your audience. Most beginning speakers use too many notes, lean— ing on them as a psychological crutch th at ends up interfering with the delivery of the present ation. However, if you have practiced the speech ade- quately, you will only need the memory cues contained in a well-written speaking outline to get you through the presentation. Follow Structure of the Preparation Outline For the speaking outline, it is important to use the same outline style used in your preparation outline; this means you will want to use the same exact sym— bols and indentation as you used in the preparation CHECKLIST FOR A outline. However, because the speaking outline must pREpARATION OUTLINE be brief, you will want to replicate only a brief ver— Use fun sentences sion of the presentation outline. The example at the Use a consistent end of the chapter on pages 173—174 demonstrates indentation and these guidelines. symbolization system Include transitions Include Supporting Materials lnctUde internal Citations You will also want to include any references you will need to cite during the presentation. This will enhance your credibility as a speaker and deter pla— giarism. Also consider adding any direct quotations an to present. Lengthy quotations and statistics should be written out verbatim so that you can cite them completely and accurately. Include a complete bibliography in APA you pl Be Leqible ()ne of the most important aspects of the speaking outline is making sure that you can read it while you are delivering your presentation. Write or type in large letters so that you can see them easily while you are speaking. Write on only one side of the note card and number each one. If the stack of cards falls on the floor, you will want to be able to recover quickly and easily! Provide Delivery Cues are the stage directions that add emph tion. Dramatic pauses, repetition, rate, and volume are tant delivery aspects. A well—polished and effective presentation depends not only on what you say, but how you say it. Including delivery cues in your speak— ing outline will remind you to use these types of spt :eial features loadd inIpaet. Delivery cues can be added to the speaking outline in a v: Perhaps you would like to highlight eeI't asis to your presenta— all examples of impor— II'iety of ways. ain porlions olv'the speech or maybe ~ I v 167 Outllnlnq the Presentatlon | (itlAt'ltult 7 you want to write in specific directions. Whatever choice you make, insert your delivery cries clearly and legibly so that they do not Interfere w1th 1ypur ability to read the outline. Here are some example cues you mlght a(( to r' ' ' ‘2 <' itline: W” SIM] mg m GUIDELINES FOR AN EFFECTIVE SPEAKING : pause OUTLINE ': make eye contact I Be brief '2 slow down -: move from the podium Print large enough to read ': walk to the other side of the room easily Write leginy Usually Use Note Cards Write out quotations and One common question that speakers often ask is statistics ' whether they should write their speaking outline on ;; Number your Index cards note cards or a sheet of paper. Most experts agree Oi pages ' that note cards are sturdier and more adaptable. :: Write an ona‘lydogrepsaithpf |"or example, note cards work with either a lectern the 'n ex C . or without one. They also tend to be less distract— :: Unless you are usmg a - lectern, use index cards . . . rd_ mg and ea31er to rearrange. One guideline rega ing this question is simple: if you do not have access loi'I lcctern use note cards. They will be less distracting than sheets ofpaper. Rcoardless of which you decide to use, it is important to write on only one sid: of the card or paper. Additionally, you should number each of your cards or sheets of paper. ( )nllincs are extremely important. Even experienced speakers cannot afford to take shortcuts at this step in the process. A great outline increases the like- liliood of a successful speech, and a flawed outline translates into a flawed presentation every single time. This chapter presented two types offopt— lines that play different roles during different parts of the preparation 0 tie piesentat'ion. . ‘ . . that enables The preparation outline IS the maior outline you prepare . It \‘on to see your entire presentation in a highly structured and detalled way. 1 allords you the opportunity to critique your presentatlon 3 organization, leve ol detail, use of evidence, and so on. The speaking outline IS what you actu- ' ‘ " ‘ ’ ints ally use during the presentation. It pionipts you to cover your main p0 , to and exact quotes, to express transitions, to gauge your tuning, as well as o ' ' ‘ i " -‘,‘ ‘ovcr- llll'lll(l(‘ other vital Inloi'nialion during the pHM ntalIoII. ll()W(VLt, thlc ‘Ill level ol detail is eonsideialiiy less than that ol the presentation oIIt IIK. 168 (animal 7 l Outllnlnq the Presentation Hy hiking the information in [his chapler seriously, you can learn from Zach’s mistake. Snazzy PowerPoints might look good and help make a point, but they do not constitute adequate preparation for a presentation. And they cannot compensate for a weak outline. Outlining is fundamental m5— AJ’A style Preparation outline Balance Reference page Coordination Signpost Delivery cues Speaking outline Directional transitions Subordination internal preview Subpoint Internal review Transitions w Bchnke, R. R., & Sawyer, C. R. (2001). Patterns ofpsychological state anxiety in public speaking as a function of anxiety sensitivity. Communication Quarterly, 49, 84—94. F inn, A. N., Sawyer, C. R., & Behnke, R. R. (2003). Audience-perceived anxiety patterns of public speakers. Communication Quarterly, 51, 470—481. Freeman, T, Sawyer, C. R., 81 Behnke, R. R. (1997). Behavioral inhibition and the attribution ofpublic speaking state anxiety. Communication Edu— cation, 46, 175—187. Kahana, M. 1., & Howard, M. W. (2005). Spacing and lag effects in free recall ofpure lists. Psychonomic Bulletin 6 Review, 12(1), 159—164. Sharp, H. Ir, & McClung, T. (1966). Effects oforganization on the speaker’s ethos. Speech Monographs, 33, 18fo Outllnlnq the Presentatlon I (ill/\l”l'|",l( 7 UNCOVERING THE SOLACE OF SLEEP (leneral Purpose: To inform Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about the role of sleep in our everyday lives. 'l'hesis Statement: In order to understand the role of sleep in our daily lives, it is important to recognize the effects of sleep on health, typical sleep profiles ofAmericans, and factors that interfere with our ability to get enough sleep. Introduction I. 11. III. IV. Body Attention—Getter: In 2001, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration estimated that more than 100,000 automobile accidents are related to driver fatigue. In fact, 1,500 deaths and tens of thousands of injuries and disabilities are related to drowsy driving. This problem impacts drivers age 25 and younger more than any other age group. (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2002) Credibility Statement: After falling asleep at the wheel many times myself, I became curious about sleep’s role in our day— to—day activities and would like to share some of the interesting information I have uncovered. Relating to the Audience: As college students, we all know how precious time is and sleep is one of the first things we cut from our schedules. 'l'hesis Statement: In order to understand the role of sleep in our daily lives, it is important to recognize the effects of sleep on health, typical sleep profiles of Americans, and factors that interfere with our ability to get enough sleep. 'I'ransition: First, I’ll discuss the effects of sleep on health. (lenerally, sleep is necessary for our health. A. li'irst, sleep is necessary for physical health. I . According to the 2001 Chicago 'l'ribune article “Waking Up to lhe Danger ofSleep Dcprivalion" by Ronald Kotulak, when people (in not gel enough sleep their insulin has 169 170 cum-111117 l Outllnlnq the Presentatlon a harder time converting glneose from food into energy. (Kolulak, 2001) a. As a result, the body produces Z to 3 times the normal amount of glucose, which is called insulin resistance. b. This puts a person at a much higher risk of getting diabetes and/or suffering from obesity. 2. The lack of sleep influences production ofleptin, a hormone that tells the brain you are full or no longer hungry. a. The less you sleep, the less leptin is produced in your body. b. People who do not sleep enough may eat more because they do not feel full due to the lack ofleptin, which can put them at risk for gaining weight. B. Second, sleep is necessary for cognitive health. I. The lack of sleep influences levels oflearning. a. A 2001 Chicago Tribune article by Ronald Kotulak cites an experiment done by Robert Stickgold of Harvard University showing a connection between sleep, learning, and retaining information. (Kotulak, 2001) b. The results indicate that the ability for people to learn and retain information is best if they had received an adequate amount of sleep. Z. The lack of sleep also influences the structure of the brain. a. A study by Kwangwook Cho published in the June 2001 Nature Neuroscience concludes that sleep deprivation due to intense traveling and regular jet lag can change the structure of the brain. (Cho, 2001) b. Brain scans done in this research showed that part of the patients’ brains, specifically the right temporal lobe, had shrunk due to the lack of sleep. Transition: Now that you know the effects of sleep on our health, next I will discuss the typical sleep profiles of Americans. 11. The sleep profiles ofAmericans indicate that they do not get the recommended amount of sleep. A. According to the 2002 National Sleep Foundation brochure, “When You Can’t Sleep: The ABCs onZZs,” the majorin of healthy adults need an average of8 hours ofsleep per nighl. (National Sleep Foundation, 2002) 'I'ransilion: Now that you know the sleep Outllnlnq the Presentatlon | (an/wruu 7 It I 7001 lhe National Sleep honildnliun published a Sleep In . 111.. , x r 11L V (.W It 11( 1111( ()11 11 V0 \' 1 k. (, 1(11( 11 S A | C r ) 17 I 0]) )1 P ) ) with l 004 adults that examined the sleep plofiles of American ' ‘ ‘ ' ' 2001) N; tronal Sleep Foundation, . 7 V ' f (‘ in]; results of this poll indicate Americans sleep profiles d1f er . . I 1d based on age, gender, region of tendency, famlly status, a1 weiUht status. V 1 Rge influences the sleep patterns of Amencans. f7 1 hours i 18— to 29—year—olds report getting an average 0 . of sleep on weekdays and 65% have driven while drowsy. b 30— to 64—year—olds report getting an average of.7.0 hours I of sleep on weekdays and 51% have drlven while a. drowsy. ' s. 2 Gender influences the sleep patterns of Amencan a Males get an average of 6.9 hours of sleep a night.h bi Females get an average of 7.1 hours of sleep a 111g t. 3 Region of residency influences the sleep patterns of Americans. I V a Individuals from the Midwest get an average of 6.8 hours of sleep. of b Individuals from the Northeast get an average 7.1 hours of sleep. 0. Individuals from the West get an average of 7.2 hours of sleep. 4 Family status influences the sleep patterns I of i a Individuals married with children get an average 6.7 hours of sleep. . I f b Individuals married without ch1ldren get an average 0 7.2 hours of sleep. I I c Individuals single without children get an average of 7.1 hours of sleep. ' ' r the 31 5. Welght status influences . { a Individuals who are overweight get an average of 6.9 hours of sleep. > . b Individuals who are underwe1ght get an average of 7.1 hours of sleep. of Americans. €61) patterns Of AITICIICEIHS. profiles of Americans, finally I’ll . . . h tell you about factors that interfere w1th our ab111ty to get enoug sleep. 171 172 (Ill/\i"l'|'1l(7 i Outlininq the Presentation [11. According to the 2002 National Sleep Foundation broelnrre tilled “When You Can’t Sleep: The ABCs of ZZZS," there are various “sleep stealers" that make it difficult to get the recommended 8 hours of sleep a night. (National Sleep Foundation, 2002) A. First, factors related to stress serve as sleep stealers. 1. 2. Stress is the number one cause of short-term sleeping difficulties. Stressful situations that trigger sleep problems include school or job pressures, family or marriage problems, and a serious illness or death in the family. In most cases, sleep problems disappear when the stresslrrl situation disappears but if not managed correctly the problems may persist. B. Second, lifestyle behaviors serve as sleep stealers. 1. Things that may interfere with a good night’s sleep irrclrrde drinking alcoholic beverages in the afternoon or evening, having an irregular morning and nighttime schedule, and doing mentally intense activities before or after getting into bed. In a 2001 Sunday Times (London) article, Helen Kirwan- Taylor argues exercising near bedtime, eating spicy foods, and drinking carbonated or caffeine beverages anytime after 4:00 pm. makes it difficult to fall asleep. (Kirwan— Taylor, 2001) C. Finally, physical factors serve as sleep stealers. 1. 3. Physical conditions that cause pain, backache, or discomfort, such as arthritis, make it hard to sleep comfortably. Sleep apnea, a condition involving snoring and interrupted breathing, causes brief awakenings and excessive daytime sleepiness. Disorders that cause involuntary limb movement interrupt normal sleep patterns, srrelr as restless leg syndrome. "‘l'. Women can experience physical factors that intrude on normal sleep patterns srreh as pregnancy, hormonal shilts, premenstrual syndrome (I’MS), or rrrerroparrse. 'I'ransilion: In ('lti'llllH, l have shared wrllr you the important role sleep plays in Hill everyday 1m». Outlininq the Presentation 1 (arArvrrai 7 Conclusion 1. Restate rThesi health, typica 1 have discussed the effects of sleep on s: S ecifically, . P of Americans, and factors that mterfere 1 sleep profiles with our ability to get enough sleep. 11. Closing Statement: Thous year aren’t “just random"; ra recognize the power 0 ands of automobile deaths each ther, they occur because we fail to f a fundamental part of human life we almost never think about—the solace that is sleep. References Cho, K. ( spatial cognitive deficits. Nature Kirwan—Taylor, H. (2001, May 13). p. A12. Kotulak, R. (2001, ) Chicago Tribune National Highway Traffic Safety automobile crashes I National Sleep Foundation. (2001, January). Sleep 1 ington, DC. National Sleep Foundation. (2002) 7.715 (2nd ed.) 2001 lune). Chronic “jet lag” produces temporal lobe atro phy and Neuroscience, 4, 567—568. Snooze control. Sunday Times (London), une 12). Waking up to the danger of sleep deprivation. , p. A4. _ ‘ d Administration. (2002). Drowsy dr1v1ng an h .Washin ton, DC. TBrOC me] g n America poll. Wash— . When you can’t sleep: The ABCs of [Brochure]. Washington, DC. SAMPLE SPEAKiNfi {BUTLSNE The following note cards provide a speaking outhn e for the introduction, r-orrelrrsion, and main point 1 for the sample outline. litli’t) i. 2001, NHTSA eat. more than 100,000 auto, 15 Make Eye Contact!!!!i! 00 deaths, 105 of 10005 injuries, drivera 25 & l H. Falling lii. Sleep firet thier out IV. Preview, effect on health // irr tori} Transition: l ir aaleep myaetf . . . / eleep profilea /// factora that -it‘(: rill. (“oratory (:l‘llecte of” 5166p 01’] health 173 174 (IllAl"|‘|’I|{ I. Sleep neceeeary for health A. Firet, phyeical health 1. 2001 Chic Tribune—Kotulak Waking up Dangere of Sleep Depr. lneulin hareler convert glucoee a. 2 to 5 more glucoee l7. eliahetee/obeeity 2. Production of leptin a. leee eleep = leee leptin l7. eat more—gain weight l5. Second, cognitive health 1. Levele of learning a. Previous Kotulak article 5tickgolcl-Harvard- connect eleep, learning, retain info l7. retain info if enough sleep 2. Structure of Brain a. Cho 6/01 Nature Neuroecience Jet lag change etructure brain l7. ecan ehow rite temporal lobe ehrinkage Transition: In oloeing ehare importance of aleep CONCLUSION l. Specifically, effects on healthl/aleep profilee//factore that interfere ||. 1000 acct/Jen to not random. rather occur fail to recognize hind part ol Illa Mildrm ol' olocp Outlining the Presentatlon Outllnlnq the Presentation | (III/\l"l‘li',lt 7 GOOD HAND HYGIENE General Purpose: To persuade Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience to practice better hand hygiene. 'I'hesis: Practicing good hand hygiene and washing your hands regularly provides a simple solution to many health issues we face today. Today I am going to explain just how dirty we really are, why washing your hands can help you stay healthy, and the proper techniques to use when washing your hands. Introduction 1. II. III. l\' Attention—Getter: According to lill Max in her book, Germ Warfare in Public, the average American touches 300 surfaces every 30 minutes, picking up millions of germs and bacteria along the way. Relevance: As we enter into the winter season, it seems that sickness and colds are inevitable during this time of year. You might feel like there is no way around your annual winter cold. However, I am going to provide you with some tips to keep you well this flu season. Credibility: Since I have been at college, I have been getting one cold after another. Becoming frustrated with all these illnesses, I jumped on the Internet to see if there was anything I could do. I was surprised to learn that one of the most effective things we can do to prevent illness is something we do every day. 'I'lu'sis: Practicing good hand hygiene and washing your hands regularly provides a simple solution to many health issues we face today. 'I 'oday I am going to explain just how dirty we really are, \\'l|\' washing your hands can help you stay healthy, and the proper lt't‘lllllqtlcs to use when washing your hands. 'I'nmsilion: Now that you know what can solve our dilemma, I am going to give you the dirt on just how filthy our hands are at any given moment. 175 176 (IIIAP'J‘ER 7 I Outlining the Presentation ICIC c116 lilally (langeIOUS, lllHeSS-Callsll g g6 1 is )eople COHIC lIl contact with every day. Body t. ’11 A. B. rSt y y y 7 I anti g1 U a] Idea ()flusl l H g IS [I W 0 V6 0 low Illa 6 ll (“.1 have on you when you begin the day. 1. Even at your cleanest moment in the day, the CDC est' baciitriiraites thtagyou have between 2 million and 10 million a ius etween the tip of ou f' elbo y r ngers and your w on only one arm. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) 2. N ' ' ow figure in the rest of your body’s surface area and you are talking about hundreds of millions of germs 3. ' ' ‘ Millions ofgerms hide under watches and bracelets (Mayo Clinic) 4. Under one ring alone, there could be as many germs as th ‘ ere are people in Europe. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Now that you know roughly how many ge world with each morning, the second thing you should know ' is where you pick up germs during the day. rms you face the 1. We are all aware of the fact that there are germs in public places such as restrooms, offices, and r estaurants. Z. W hat most of us are not aware of, however is where the most harmful germs are hiding. 3. T 0:16 gnolst harmful germs we come into contact with 1a 131 y bas1s are found on credit cards gas nozzles ca ' 7 7 cu ators, library books, computer keyboards, treadmill keypads, refrigerator handles, and even dispensers. (Purell) hand soap C. Th. . . . ird, it is important to recognize that because of other people's oor h ' p and hygiene, the number ofgernis each one of 1115 cLoJmes into contact with each day inulti] . to ' ' p one halfofall men and one quarter ofall women tail 2. " ' After using the restroom, the number 3. to wash their hands after going to the b' for Disease Control and Prevention) finverti ‘ ) g 1' s doubles. ((it ntcls tor Disease I rcvenhon) 'l'his‘ mc‘ "‘ . .msi ' ' i you (louhh the minith o [uson has ( omc lulo contact with in 1; )lics by millions. ithroom. (Centers ()l gCt'llIS ()Il \"(illl' (Ioulrol and I germs any om- awn day, that is Outltntnq the Presentation | (:nmvriat ‘/ what you are touching when you touch the door handle after llicni, or you shake their hand. 4. Now I am going to show you a little clip from a movie that is a perfect example of how we encounter germs every day and don’t realize it. The facts presented are actually true. Directional Transition: Now that you know the facts of just how dirty our everyday life is, I’m going to tell you how washing your hands can wash away your worries. ll. Washing your hands is the simplest and the most effective way to protect yourself from our dirty world. (Mayo Clinic) A. Washing your hands and practicing good hand hygiene drastically lowers your risk of catching a serious illness. (Mayo Clinic; Clean) 1. Hand washing kills even the most harmful bacteria, including E. coli, salmonella, shigellosis, hepatitis A, and several others. (Clean) 2. Researchers have proven that washing your hands thoroughly helps to stop the spreading of the common cold, the flu, and even more harmful viruses. (Mayo Clinic) 3. Here is an example: there are around 76 million food—borne illnesses each year in America, and 25% of these could be prevented by people simply washing their hands. (Hospitality, Mayo Clinic) B. Experts at England’s Queen Mary’s School of Medicine conducted a study to find the most effective ways of preventing illnesses such as the flu, food poisoning, and the common cold, and hand washing was determined to be the most effective way to prevent illness, as this is how it works. (Vital Health, Max, Mayo Clinic) 1. Let’s say someone with a cold sneezes into their hand and then gets on the City Bus, holds on to the bar for support, and then exits. You get on, hold the bar and then scratch your eye, thereby exposing yourself to that persons genus, which increases your chance of catching his or her cold. 3. Washng your hands hclorc scralchiug your eye would have i\) killcd inosl ollhosc tt't‘t‘lllfs, reducing your chance olgctling Slt'ls. (1. A slmh‘ in Detroit uhmxml lhal pcoph- who thoroughly \\’;l.\ll their hands at h';i'.| tom him". .I (lay miss Z‘l'ii h-ss school or 177 178 t1||x\l"l‘ll‘,l{ ',' l Outllnlnq the Presentatlon work days for respiratory illness and 51% less for upset stomachs than those who do not. (Vital Health) 1. Washing your hands has been proven to be the best way to avoid getting sick this winter. 2. You can protect yourself from millions of germs each day just by washing your hands more often. Directional Transition: So you know now that you need to wash your hands more often, but if you do not do it the right way, it is not going to help. 111. It is estimated that 90% of all adults do not properly wash their hands, so let’s look at the right way to do it. (Vital Health) A. Proper hand—washing techniques could be the difference between a healthy and an unhealthy winter. 1. First, you should spend at least 20 seconds washing your hands every time you wash them. (Max, Clean) 2. Second, most right-handed people wash their left hand better and vice versa, so make an effort to wash them evenly. (Max) 3. Third, wash under your fingernails! This is where most germs hide. (Max) 4. Finally, when you turn off the faucet, use a paper towel because you just touched it with dirty hands when turning on the water. (Max) B. There are also some simple ways to help avoid spreading germs to others. 1. Keep hands moisturized because dry, cracked hands offer more spaces for bacteria to climb into, which also makes them harder to get rid of. (Vital Health) 2. Dry your hands well, because damp hands transfer 1,000 times more germs than dry hands. (Vital Health) Directional Transition: Now that you know the common mistakes we make, you can think about them the next time you go to wash your hands. Outllnlnq the Presentatlon l (:HAM‘HN ‘/ Conclusion A. Review of Thesis: 1 have told you loday how dirty we really are, why washing your hands can help, and common mistakes to avoid when washing your hands. B. Review Statement: We live in a dirty world. Washing your hands often has proven to be the most effective way of reducing your risk of getting sick. Therefore, we need to wash our hands more often and more thoroughly. C. Clincher: Thousands of people will avoid sickness this winter by washing their hands more often. Will you be one of them? References (Icnters for Disease Control and Prevention fact book 2004. (2004). New York: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Clean hands first defense against diseases. (2006, July 30). The Pakistan Newswire (Pakistan), n.p. Hospitality Institute of Technology and Management. (2005, September). Food poisoning. Retrieved October 26, 2006, from http://www,hi—tm.com/ Documents2000/Hand-poster.html. Max, Jill. (2005). Germ warfare in public. New York: ScienCentral, Inc. Mayo Clinic. (2005, December). Hand washing: A simple way to prevent infection. CNN.com. Retrieved October 24, 2006, from http://www.c1m. eom/HEALTH/library/HQ/00407.html. I’urcll. (2006, May). 99 places where germs are likely to lurk. Retrieved October 25, 2006, from http://www.purell.com/germs. Vital health and statistics. (2000). New York: National Center for Health Statistics. 179 ...
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