25_CHM115_Spring09

25_CHM115_Spring09 - Chem 115 M01 and M02 Lecture 24,...

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1 Chem 115 M01 and M02 Lecture 24, 11/16/07 External readings; p. 732; pp 698-699. See the course website Sections 13.6-13.8, pp 616-629, and pages 84-86, p. 1052 and figure 21.28 on p. 1053. Read also http://pubs.acs.org/hotartcl/mdd/00/mar/knap. html “Polymorphic Predictions”
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2 Malaria Malaria is caused by parasitic protozoa (genus: Plasmodium) and is transferred to humans by mosquitos Symptoms: VERY high fever (107°F), nausea, delirium There are an estimated 100 – 200 MILLION cases of malaria worldwide each year (80% are in Africa) 1 – 1.5 millions deaths per year
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3 Treatment of Malaria: Quinine Before the arrival of European settlers, Peruvian Indians used bark from the Cinchona tree (found in the Andes) to treat fever; it also was found to cure malaria. Europeans learned about the healing ability of Cinchona bark and started harvesting it (almost to extinction, but for the development of conservation efforts) and sending it back to Europe
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4 Treatment of Malaria: Quinine The active ingredient in the Cinchona bark is quinine, isolated in 1820. Quinine cures malaria by killing the parasite (it binds to proteins in the body that the parasites need). eerily nicotine like, isn’t it?
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5 Interesting Facts about Quinine The British Army developed tonic water in order to get their soldiers to take quinine to fight malaria (it’s not known who was the first to add gin) Although quinine can be obtained from tree bark, it was first synthesized artificially in 1944 by RB Woodward and WvE Doering (not a coincidence that it was during WWII – natural supplies were cut off)
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6 Many drugs are discovered in the same way as quinine Aspirin – salicylic acid (not aspirin) was obtained by chewing on Willow bark. Alfred Bayer in Germany discovered that the acetyl ester was more effective for pain relief, and called it “aspirin” (the trademark was lost when the US seized all domestic German assets after WWI). Mold in a petri dish led to the discovery of penicillin.
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Many drugs are discovered in the same way as quinine Taxol is an anti-cancer drug that is obtained from the bark of Yew trees. Countless potential drugs are isolated from plants, algae, and even things like sea sponges. In all these cases, the general approach is
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25_CHM115_Spring09 - Chem 115 M01 and M02 Lecture 24,...

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