27CHM1150

27CHM1150 - CHM 11500 Lecture 28 Ceramics Electric...

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CHM 11500 CHM 11500 Lecture 28 Lecture 28 Ceramics, Electric Conduction in Solids Ceramics, Electric Conduction in Solids Reading: Interchapter: The Chemistry of Modern Materials; pp. 643-655
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Ceramics Solid inorganic compounds that combine metal and non-metal atoms and in which bonding ranges from ionic to covalent ; prepared by heating and cooling Examples: Glasses Clays Bricks Cement Tile Sea shells Sea urchin spines made of CaCO 3 and MgCO 3
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Classes of Ceramics: Clays Processed by shaping, drying, then firing (no melting involved) to harden Clays are generally mixtures of hydrated alumina, Al 2 O 3 , and silica, SiO 2 , sometimes with other compounds added Powders (not wide crystallinity) Become very plastic when water is added Hold their shape during firing Layered molecular structure that results in platelets , which can slide over each other easily when wet
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4 Model of Clay Structure Clay ( oxygen, aluminum, silicon ) interacting with water ( oxygen, hydrogen ) and some mineral impurities ( sodium ions , methane molecules ). The top and bottom layers represent clay “platelets” that slide over each other with a water layer in between.
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Ceramics are commonly categorized by use: 1) Structural: bricks, pipes, roof and floor tiles 2) Refractories: cremation furnaces , steel and glass making crucibles 3) Whitewares: tableware, pottery 4) Technical or engineering/advanced/special ceramics: tiles used in the space shuttle program, gas burner nozzles, biomedical implants , jet engine turbine blades, missile nose cones
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Ceramic materials are used in a wide range of biomedical applications: Bone implants Strength Toughness Low wear rate Bio-inertness Cardiovascular Stents Ceramic coating releases drugs Glass beads to treat inoperable liver cancer
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27CHM1150 - CHM 11500 Lecture 28 Ceramics Electric...

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