101 11-2 - INDV 101 November 2, 2009 Section 57 From trees...

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INDV 101 November 2, 2009 Section 57
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From trees to rules Thus far, we’ve concentrated on drawing trees for English sentences. These trees are used to represent constituency: if a group of words forms a constituent, they are all located on a connected subtree. That, is, you can find a single node in the tree dominating all and only those words. Conversely, each group of words that ‘hangs off’ a single node is a constituent.
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PS rules We will now introduce another piece of ‘technology’, phrase structure rules ( PS rules for short). These rules specify how each kind of phrase (NPs, VPs, etc.) can be built up. Here’s one example: PP P (NP)
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PP P (NP) How to read these: On the left, there is a ‘large’ category (a phrase or sentence). On the right are the things that go inside that category. So, this rule says a Prepositional Phrase (PP) consists of ( ) a Preposition (P), and an optional noun phrase (NP). Optional elements are written inside parentheses; things not in parentheses are required.
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P (NP) In terms of trees: PP OR PP P P NP Thus, the rule describes the possible prepositional phrases in English: Those which consist of just a preposition: I went [ PP under]. And those which also have a noun phrase:
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This note was uploaded on 02/06/2012 for the course INDV 101 taught by Professor Walker during the Fall '07 term at University of Arizona- Tucson.

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101 11-2 - INDV 101 November 2, 2009 Section 57 From trees...

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