101%20final%20review[1]

101%20final%20review[1] - Key terms cognate proto-language...

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Key terms: cognate proto-language Indo-European chain shift Grimm’s Law: Voiceless stops became voiceless fricatives , Voiced stops became voiceless stops , Voiced aspirated stops became voiced stops . IE Gmc IE Gmc IE Gmc p > f b > p b h > b t > θ d > t d h > d k > x (=h) g > k g h > g k w > x w (=h w ) g w > k w g hw > g w Note: x h later on in the development of English. Note: in what follows, it is important to remember that Latin kept almost all of the Indo-European consonants as is, without change. 1. Compare Latin ‘quod’ /kwod/ and Old English ‘hwæt’ /hwæt/, both meaning ‘what’. Are these items likely to be cognates? Explain why or why not, making use of the changes in the Old English form predicted by Grimm’s law. For the purposes of this question, you may ignore the vowels; just look at the consonants. 2. It turns out that the Modern English word ‘head’ and ‘capital’ (of Latinate origin) are, believe it or not, cognates. Decapitation, for example, is literally ‘de-heading’. The form of this word in
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101%20final%20review[1] - Key terms cognate proto-language...

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