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Unformatted text preview: - Neolithic Revolution o Period between 10,000 3,000 BC o Also called the New Stone Age o Nomadic people began settling in one place, animals were domesticated, and crops were cultivated o Writing starts to develop in Mesopotamian Egypt o Civilizations develop in 5,000 BC in Mesopotamia and Egypt- Mesopotamia between Tigres and Euphrates rivers in present day Iraq o Gilgamesh (2500 BC) King in city of Uruk; epic poem with themes of friendship and search for immortality; epic poems explain the world Flood story; was one of the earliest known poems Gods send a flood because people were too loud; instructed to build a boat; similar to Noahs arch with divine intervention o Sumar religion was polytheistic (many gods), amanestic (inanimate things can be gods), and syncretistic (borrow religious aspects from neighboring cities) Make sacrifices to gods; no developed afterlife Religions were pessimistic b/c rivers didnt flood periodically; was a geographically weak area o Sumar was the birthplace of civilization Was an alliance of many different cities (independent, walled city-states) Ziggurats were the most important buildings (temples to worship Gods, ascending up) Important in history because people who conquer it adopt its culture o Cunieform From cuneus meaning wedge shape Adopted by the Mesopotamians in the Uruk Period (3800-3200 BC) Form of writing w/ pictures on clay tablets (wet tablet, write, put in oven) By 2350 BC, there were 600 symbols Used by merchants, used in law, used for historical documents For centuries, knowledge of how to read it was lost o In the Dynastic Period , Lugals appear (2800 BC) strong man who governed different cities, built palaces; was the king a representative of the gods o In 2350 BC, Sargon king of the Acadians invaded Mesopotamia From Akkad, he conquered all of Mesopotamia Was found floating in a basket in the Nile River; was brought into a palace by a servant and goes on to be a great king seen as a gift of the river Adapts to the way Sumerians do things; doesnt force people to do things the Acadian ways o Amorites (from Babylon) invade Summeria in 1900 BC Hammurabi (1700s) was their famous ruler; known for his practical law code Egypt- Egyptians fascinated their successors, but didnt influence Western Civ in a lasting way- Settled on the Nile River flooded very predictably; Upper Egypt = South, Lower = Noth- Predynastic/Archaic Period, then the Old Kingdom (2695-2160) considered the greatest; pyramids built in 2580 by Kufu; symbolized stability o Pharoh = God; means great house; considered divine so couldnt look at or speak to directly- Middle Kingdom (2025-1786) Egypt becomes polytheistic; Ethical dimension of religion is also added Osiris judges ones heart- New Kingdom (1550-1075) turbulent time o Battle of Quadesh took place in the 1200s (during the New Kingdom); the Egyptians battled the...
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This note was uploaded on 02/07/2012 for the course HS 455 taught by Professor Mcourt during the Spring '11 term at UCLA.
- Spring '11