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Unformatted text preview: A Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning:
Implications for Design Principles Facts! Research on educational technologies has a disappointing history. Example 1 In 1922, the famous inventor Thomas Edison proclaimed that "the motion picture is destined to revolutionize our educational system and that in a few years it will supplant...the use of textbooks" (cited in Cuban, 1986, p. 9). Over the decades later, Cuban (1986, p. 17) concluded that "most teachers used films infrequently in classrooms." Example 2 fifty years later in the 1970s, the game like computerassisted instruction (CAI) programs that were envisaged as the wave of the future in education eventually proved to be no more effective than teacher based modes of instruction (Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, 1996). Example 3 Today, strong claims are being made for the potential of multimedia learning environments (including webbased applications). Does it? How to avoid history from repeating? How can we avoid a trail of broken promises concerning the educational benefits of new educational technologies such as multimedia learning environments? Recommendation A reasonable solution is to use instructional technology in ways that are grounded in researchbased theory (Mayer and Moreno). technology must be guided by a research based theory of how students learn. Effective use of a new instructional advances in cognitive psychology provide the starting point to understanding how technologysuch as multimediacan be used to foster student learning. (Mayer and Moreno) provide a research based review of five principles of multimedia design. Outcome of this research work By beginning with a theory of how learners process multimedia information, they have conducted focused research that yields some preliminary principles of multimedia design. principles of multimedia design
1. 2. 3. Multiple Representation Principle: Its is better to present an explanation in words and pictures than solely in words. Contiguity Principle: When giving a multimedia explanation, present corresponding words and pictures contiguously rather than separately. SplitAttention Principle: When giving a multimedia explanation, present words as auditory narration rather than as visual on screen text. principles of multimedia design
4. 5. Individual Differences Principle: The foregoing principles are more important for low knowledge than highknowledge learners, and for highspatial rather than lowspatial learners. Coherence Principle: When giving a multimedia explanation, use few rather than many extraneous words and pictures. Multiple Representation Principle it is better to present an explanation using two modes of representation rather than one. Multiple Representation Principle: Observation 1 Students who listened to a narration explaining how a bicycle tire pump works while also viewing a corresponding animation generated twice as many useful solutions to subsequent problem solving transfer questions than did students who listened to the same narration without viewing any animation (Mayer & Anderson, 1991, 1992). Multiple Representation Principle: Observation 2 students who read a text containing captioned illustrations placed near the corresponding words generated about 65% more useful solutions on a subsequent problemsolving transfer test than did students who simply read the text (Mayer, 1989; Mayer & Gallini, 1990). Multiple Representation Principle: Result from the observations is called multimedia effect (Mayer and Moreno) The multimedia effect is consistent with a cognitive theory of multimedia learning because: students given multimedia explanations are able to build:
visual model The connections between them. Two different mental representations--a verbal model and a Contiguity Principle: Students better understand an explanation when corresponding words and pictures are presented at the same time than when they are separated in time. Contiguity Principle: Observation 1 Students who listened to a narration explaining how a bicycle tire pump works while also viewing a corresponding animation generated 50% provide more useful solutions to subsequent problem solving transfer questions than did students who viewed the animation before or after listening to the narration (Mayer & Anderson, 1991, 1992; Mayer & Sims, 1994). Contiguity Principle: Observation 2 students who read a text explaining how tire pumps work that included captioned illustrations placed near the text generated about 75% more useful solutions on problem solving transfer questions than did students who read the same text and illustrations presented on separate pages (Mayer, 1989; Mayer, Steinhoff, Bower, & Mars, 1995). Contiguity Principle: The observations' results are called continuity effect. Consistent with the cognitive theory of multimedia learning because corresponding words and pictures must be in working memory at the same time in order to facilitate the construction of referential links between them. Split-Attention Principle According to this principle, words should be presented auditorily rather than visually Split-Attention Principle: Observation students who viewed an animation depicting the formation of lightning while also listening to a corresponding narration generated approximately 50% more useful solutions on a subsequent problemsolving transfer test than did students who viewed the same animation with corresponding onscreen text consisting of the same words as the narration (Mayer & Moreno, in press). Split-Attention Principle: split attention effect (Chandler & Sweller, 1991; Mousavi, Low & Sweller, 1995; Sweller,Chandler, Tierney and Cooper, 1990). This result is consistent with the cognitive theory of multimedia learning because: the onscreen text and animation can overload the visual information processing system whereas narration is processed in the verbal information processing system and animation is processed in the visual information processing system. Individual Differences Principle: multimedia effects, contiguity effects, and splitattention effects depend on individual differences in the learner. Individual Differences Principle: Observation 1 Students who lack prior knowledge tended to show stronger effects than students who possessed high levels of prior knowledge (Mayer & Gallini, 1991, Mayer, Steinhoff, Bower & Mars, 1995). According to a cognitive theory of multimedia learning, students with high prior knowledge may be able to generate their own mental images while listening to an animation or reading a verbal text So having a contiguous visual presentation is not needed. Individual Differences Principle: Observation 2 Students who scored high on tests of spatial ability showed greater multimedia effects than did students who scored low on spatial ability (Mayer & Sims, 1994). According to a cognitive theory of multimedia learning, students with high spatial ability are able to hold the visual image in visual working memory Thus, they are more likely to benefit from contiguous presentation of words and pictures. Coherence Principle students learn better from a coherent summary which highlights the relevant words and pictures than from a longer version of the summary. Coherence Principle: Observation students who read a passage explaining the steps in how lightning forms along with corresponding illustrations generated 50% more useful solutions on a subsequent problemsolving transfer test than did students who read the same information with additional details inserted in the materials (Mayer, Bove, Bryman, Mars & Tapangco, 1996; Harp & Mayer, 1997). Coherence Principle: redundancy effect The observation result is consistent with a cognitive theory of multimedia learning, to select relevant information and organize it productively. in which a shorter presentation primes the learner Reference Mayer and Moreno, A Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning: Implications for Design Principles at http://www.unm.edu/~moreno/PDFS/chi.p df ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/06/2012 for the course FACULTY OF WXGE6320 taught by Professor Noraini during the Winter '09 term at University of Malaya.
- Winter '09