10 Language and gender 1 PP

10 Language and gender 1 PP - Language and Gender...

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    Language and Gender Differences in male and female  speech
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Qualitative Differences the  Carib  people (West Indies) –  women using Arawak words traditional  Bengali  women – /l/ vs. /n/ Zulu  women – sound taboos E.g. /z/: “ amanzi ” is pronounced as  amandi
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Voice Pitch Differences male and female voice pitch levels are  not the same in different societies  low and high pitch may be deliberately  exaggerated pre-pubescent males, UK, USA higher female pitch in Japan low pitch = ‘masculine’  high pitch = ‘feminine’ 
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Deliberate Creation of Low Pitch in a  Female Speaker Margaret Thatcher, first female Prime  Minister of Britain Used to have a high pitch before  becoming PM PR advisors suggested she lower her  pitch to sound more masculine and  powerful.
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Lexical differences Pronouns in  Japanese  and  Thai Special forms for ‘I’ and ‘me’ used only  by female speakers:  dichan  and  atashi Certain adjectives in  English  are/were  used almost exclusively by females: mauve, aquamarine, magenta, lavender adorable, divine, charming, exquisite 
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Quantitative Differences in  Male/female Speech Men and women may use  different  quantities  of the  same  special forms.  This leads to interesting theories about  why  men and women show differing  patterns of speech. 
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Examples From English Colloquial reduction of –ing to –in’: I was walkin’/walking down the road when. . I was watchin’ him/watching him closely. . Dropping of word-initial /h/ (in Britain): half price   ‘arf price  happy   ‘appy double negation: I ain’t got nothin’/I haven’t got anything.
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Common Cross-linguistic  Observation Female speech often contains less non- standard forms.  Statistically, female speech contains more  forms which are considered: (a) higher in style  (b) grammatically ‘more correct’ (c) (sometimes) historically older forms (e.g.  the Chukchi in Siberia, Koasati in N. America)
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Male and Female Speech Matched  Against Class Level M and F speech in the Lower Working  class is the same M and F speech in the Upper class is  the same F speech in all other classes/socio- economic levels seems to be like M  speech in the next higher class/level:  
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Studies from the UK (replicated in the  US)  Class F    M Upper Upper Middle Lower Middle Upper Working Lower Working
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The Big Question: Why do these differences consistently  seem to be found? Important qualification: these 
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This note was uploaded on 02/07/2012 for the course ECON 293 taught by Professor Akbulut during the Spring '11 term at South Carolina.

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10 Language and gender 1 PP - Language and Gender...

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