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AN1_Quiz13_Sp09_Answers - ANTHROPOLOGY 1 Quiz 13 Spring...

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ANTHROPOLOGY 1 — Quiz 13 — Spring 2009 1. Most other female primates (and female mammals in general) are fertile right up to the end of their lifespan, but human females cease reproduction (menopause) as much as four decades earlier than their maximum lifespan. a. Briefly describe a theory for why menopause might be a human adaptation. - K-selection and long child dependency requires women to survive for up to a decade after the last birth for that child to mature - Grandmother effect: by helping to care for grandchildren she aids reproduction of kin at the peak of reproductive capacity when she is at a progressively reduced reproductive viability thus producting more and healthier beabies than if she did so herself b. Briefly describe evidence suggesting that it might be a side effect of the prolongation of the human lifespan. Humans live longer but with body size and ovary size (= number of oocytes available) near that of a chimpanzee, runs out of eggs faster than the body ages. 2. Human birth is relatively difficult and painful as compared to chimpanzee birth, and human infants are born in a more immature state (altriciality) than are chimpanzee infants. a. What differences in the human pelvis contribute to this difference? Humans have a shortened pelvis compared to other great apes to support bipedal locomotion b. Name another animal (common name, genus, or species) that has a difficult birth? Why is birth difficult for this species?
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