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3AL+Lecture+1 - Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular forces...

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Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular forces take place between molecules. An understanding of intermolecular forces is crucial to a chemist’s ability to successfully carry out reactions in the organic chemistry laboratory.
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The Forces Between Neutral Atoms or Molecules Induced Dipole Induced Dipole Dipole Dipole Dipole Induced Dipole
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Induced Dipole Induced Dipole (IDID) Interactions (London Dispersion Force) = polarizability I = ionization potential r = distance between atoms or molecules
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Induced Dipole Induced Dipole Interactions Between Helium Atoms
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Boiling Point Differences of the Noble Gases Atom bp(°C) He -269 Ne -246 Ar -186 Kr -152 Xe -107 Rn -62 I (KJ/mol) 2,372 2,081 1,521 1,351 1,170 1,037 (10 -24 cm 3 ) 0.20 0.40 1.64 2.48 4.04 5.30
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IDID Interactions in Molecules
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IDID interactions between linear alkanes increase as the chain length increases (approximately 1 kcal per CH 2 group) Alkane Boiling Point (°C) CH 4 -162 H 3 CCH 3 -89 H 3 CCH 2 CH 3 -42 H 3 CCH 2 CH 2 CH 3 -0.5 H 3 CCH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 36 H 3 C(CH 2 ) 6 CH 3 125 H 3 C(CH 2 ) 16 CH 3 316 (mp = 26 °C)
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