3AL+Lecture+2 - Δ H mixture> 0 When Δ H separation>...

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Terminology of Mixing Solution: A homogenous mixture of two or more compounds. Solute: The compound in a solution present in lesser amount. Solvent: The major component of a solution. Miscibility: Two components of a solution are infinitely soluble in each other. Saturation: The maximum amount of solute dissolved at a given temperature.
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The Thermodynamics of Mixing Δ G mixture = Δ H mixture - T Δ S mixture
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Enthalpy of Mixing (of two compounds A and B) Δ H mixture of A and B = Δ H separation of A from A + Δ H separation of B from B + Δ H association of A and B (mix A:B) (sep A:A) (sep B:B) (assoc A:B) Δ H mixture > 0 when Δ H separation > Δ H association positive negative Δ H mixture = 0 when Δ H separation = Δ H association Δ H mixture < 0 when Δ H separation < Δ H association not very common
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When will Δ H mixture ~ 0 ? When Δ H separation ~ Δ H association Δ G mixture = Δ H mixture - T
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Unformatted text preview: Δ H mixture > 0 ? When Δ H separation > Δ H association Ethanol and water are miscible Will –T Δ S Always Save the Day? Not when Δ H separation >> Δ H association Solubility of 1-heptanol in water: 0.10 g/100 mL at 18 °C 0.29 g/100 mL at 100 °C 0.52 g/100 mL at 130°C Solubility generally increases with temperature! Diethyl Ether in Water? Pentane in Water? Pentane is immiscible with water! When Δ H separation >>>> Δ H association Formation of a solution is not possible! Choosing a Solvent for a Chemical Reaction Examples of “Inert” Solvents Some Other Common Solvents Aqueous Acidic and Basic Solutions (must be used with care) A reaction occurred! K eq = 10 (pKa product acid - pKa of reactant acid) Ions and Intermolecular Forces...
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