204-America_Revision_Word

204-America_Revision_Word - America 1919-1941 Revision...

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America 1919-1941 Revision Sheet Part 1: The growth of Isolation, 1919-1922 How did the USA react to the end of World War I? Rejection of the Treaty of Versailles 1. 1918 Republicans won a majority in the Senate/ Republican opposition to Wilson led by Senator Henry Cabot Lodge - proposed 14 changes (‘reservations’) 2. Wilson set off on a nation-wide tour, but had a stroke. ToV and LoN rejected by the Senate in March 1920. 3. Reasons [ IMAGE ]: I solationism (led by Senator Borah)/ M oney – not wanting to spend money on wars/ A merican soldiers – 100,000 had died in WWI/ G ermans – German immigrants hated the ToV/ E mpire – Americans hated the British Empire PLUS WILSON (80% of Americans wanted the League, only 12 Senators were isolationists; the rest would have accepted Lodge’s 14 reservations. But Wilson would not accept any compromise and his 23 supporters voted against the Treaty.) How did the policies of the American Government encourage isolation? American Isolationism in the 1920s In 1920 Warren Harding became President under the slogan ‘return to normalcy’. Tariffs : 1. Fordney-McCumber Act (1922) – highest tariffs in history (up to 400%) set according to Scientific tariff (the wages in the country of origin) and American selling price (the cost of production in America). 2. Reasons [ WAIF ]: W artime boom: American businessmen wanted this to continue/ A merican wages: were rising, and American businessmen feared low wages in Europe/ I solationists wanted America to be self- sufficient/ F armers wanted protection because overproduction was causing prices to fall Immigration 1. 1917 Immigration Law (immigrants must be able to read English/ banned immigrants from China & Japan), 2. 1921 Emergency Quota Act (maximum number 357,000 / reduced immigration from eastern and southern Europe by only allowing each country to send 3% of immigrants already in America in 1910) 3. 1924 Reed-Johnson Act (maximum number 154,000 / reduced immigration from eastern and southern Europe by only allowing each country to send 2% of immigrants already in America in 1890) 4. ‘Naturalization’ (e.g. 'Americanization Day' rallies, 'citizenship exam'). 5. Sacco and Vanzetti - two anarchist immigrants from Italy found guilty of armed robbery and murder (1920) and executed (1927), despite 107 witnesses, and in 1925 the murderer gave himself up. 6. Reasons [ PRT ]: P rejudice against Japanese and Chinese, and poor Catholics and Jews from eastern Europe – claims America was turning into 'a race of mongrels'/ R ed scare over communists and anarchists (e.g. Sacco and Vanzetti)/ T rade Unions feared that immigrants would take their jobs. Part 2: The Promised Land? The USA in the 1920s How far did the USA achieve prosperity in the 1920s?
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This note was uploaded on 02/08/2012 for the course STA 2021 taught by Professor Xu during the Spring '11 term at FIU.

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204-America_Revision_Word - America 1919-1941 Revision...

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