linguistics final review

linguistics final review - Vocabulary Linguistic...

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Vocabulary Linguistic Competence: what we know when we know a language; the unconscious knowledge that a speaker of a language has about her or his native language. Linguistic Performance: the observable use of language Prescriptive Grammar: a set of rules designed to give instructions regarding to the “correct” or “proper” way to speak or write Descriptive Grammar: objective description of a speaker’s knowledge of a language based on their use of the language Phoneme: a class of speech sounds identified by a native speaker as the same sound; a mental entity related to various allophones Allophone: one set of non-distinctive realizations of the same phoneme Complementary Distribution: the occurrence of sounds in a language such that they are never found in the same phonetic environment; allophones of the same phoneme Contrastive Distribution: the occurrence of sounds in a language such that their use distinguishes between the meanings of the words in which they appear, indicating that those sounds are phonemes of the language in the question; allophones of different phonemes Minimal Pair: two words that differ only by a single sound in the same position and that have different meanings Natural Class: group of sounds in a language that satisfy a given description to the exclusion of other sounds in that language Morpheme: smallest linguistic unit that has a meaning or grammatical function Closed/Open Morphological Classes: Lexical Ambiguity: a situation in which a lexical item has two or more meanings Structural Ambiguity: a characteristic of phrases that have more than one possible constituent structure and therefore more than one semantic interpretation Lexicon: mental list of the words in a language, including information about their meaning, grammatical function, pronunciation, and other properties that a speaker must know in order to use a word properly Critical Period: age span, usually described as lasting from birth to the onset of puberty, during which children must have exposure to language and must build the critical brain structures necessary in order to gain native speaker competence in a language
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This note was uploaded on 02/07/2012 for the course LING 2100 taught by Professor Delisi during the Spring '08 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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linguistics final review - Vocabulary Linguistic...

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