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Unformatted text preview: Language Contact • Language contact o Involves contact of two or more distinct languages o Caused by globalization, trade, conquest, migration, etc o Can be described in temrs of influence on linguistic systems, social relationships of speakers, linguistic outcome on contact • Lexical borrowing o Adoption of individual words into one language from another o Loans, loanwords o Borrowing adapted to English phonology o Borrow if needed, languages don’t borrow ‘core’ or grammatical function words o New words or entities might need to be borrowed o Calqes, loan translations: word for word borrowing German Kettenraucher from English chain smoker • Structural borrowing o [lower z] from French o electric/electricity [k] to [s] o nominate/nomination [t] to [long S] • morphological borrowing o colloquium>colloquia o –able, -ible from French • syntactic borrowing o Syntactic word ordering o Romansch (Switzerland) Noun before Adj adj before noun German influence • Contact situations o Intensity of contact o Prestige Ad stratum Superstratum Substratum Classifications based on cultural factors o Native language interference • Results of language contact o Language convergence: development of mutual agreement of language systems in contact Sprachbund (Albanian, Macedonian, Greek, Romanian, Bulgarian, Serbo-Croatian ) ‘union of languages’ o Language shift Group of speakers shift toward new language and away from native language Can result in language death o Pidgin languages, creole languages, bilingual mixed languages • From where did English borrow these words? o Tornado, soldier, raccoon, cockroach, theater, maximum, eggs Scandinavian languages, Spanish, Greek, Latin, French, native American languages • Pidgin languages o Speakers of mutually unintelligible languages brought together develop a language to communicate o Reduced grammar and vocabulary o Limited to certain social settings o Nobody’s native language • Pidgin lexicon and grammar o Made up of mixtures of elements from all languages in contact o Vocabulary and word order usually derived from superstrate language Lexifier: language that provides most of the vocab o Phonologically usually reflects phonological system of substrate languages o Reduced syntax o Derived morphology, but not productive inflectional morphology • Chinook jargon o Developed in second half of 19 th century o Developed for indian tribes to communicate during trade o Borrowed vocabulary from Lower Chinook (superstrate language) o With settlement, Europeans learned language and contributed vocabulary o Now spoken by fewer than 100 speakers o Complex consonant clusters • Tok pisin o New guinea o Most vocabulary from english o [-im] indicates transitive verb o Semantic language sekan from shake hands means ‘to make peace’ o Substrate influence from oceanic languages • Common features o Phonological similarities Reduced consonant clusters...
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This note was uploaded on 02/07/2012 for the course LING 2100 taught by Professor Delisi during the Spring '08 term at UGA.
- Spring '08