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linguistics notes

linguistics notes - Language Contact Language contact o...

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Language Contact Language contact o Involves contact of two or more distinct languages o Caused by globalization, trade, conquest, migration, etc o Can be described in temrs of influence on linguistic systems, social relationships of speakers, linguistic outcome on contact Lexical borrowing o Adoption of individual words into one language from another o Loans, loanwords o Borrowing adapted to English phonology o Borrow if needed, languages don’t borrow ‘core’ or grammatical function words o New words or entities might need to be borrowed o Calqes, loan translations: word for word borrowing German Kettenraucher from English chain smoker Structural borrowing o [lower z] from French o electric/electricity [k] to [s] o nominate/nomination [t] to [long S] morphological borrowing o colloquium>colloquia o –able, -ible from French syntactic borrowing o Syntactic word ordering o Romansch (Switzerland) Noun before Adj adj before noun German influence Contact situations o Intensity of contact o Prestige Ad stratum Superstratum Substratum Classifications based on cultural factors o Native language interference Results of language contact o Language convergence: development of mutual agreement of language systems in contact Sprachbund (Albanian, Macedonian, Greek, Romanian, Bulgarian, Serbo-Croatian ) ‘union of languages’ o Language shift Group of speakers shift toward new language and away from native language Can result in language death
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o Pidgin languages, creole languages, bilingual mixed languages From where did English borrow these words? o Tornado, soldier, raccoon, cockroach, theater, maximum, eggs Scandinavian languages, Spanish, Greek, Latin, French, native American languages Pidgin languages o Speakers of mutually unintelligible languages brought together develop a language to communicate o Reduced grammar and vocabulary o Limited to certain social settings o Nobody’s native language Pidgin lexicon and grammar o Made up of mixtures of elements from all languages in contact o Vocabulary and word order usually derived from superstrate language Lexifier: language that provides most of the vocab o Phonologically usually reflects phonological system of substrate languages o Reduced syntax o Derived morphology, but not productive inflectional morphology Chinook jargon o Developed in second half of 19 th century o Developed for indian tribes to communicate during trade o Borrowed vocabulary from Lower Chinook (superstrate language) o With settlement, Europeans learned language and contributed vocabulary o Now spoken by fewer than 100 speakers o Complex consonant clusters Tok pisin o New guinea o Most vocabulary from english o [-im] indicates transitive verb o Semantic language sekan from shake hands means ‘to make peace’ o Substrate influence from oceanic languages Common features o Phonological similarities Reduced consonant clusters o Morphological similarities
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