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1.Organization - Computer Organization Computer...

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Unformatted text preview: Computer Organization Computer Organization Hardware and Software Computing Systems Computing Systems Computers have two kinds of components: • Hardware, consisting of its physical devices (CPU, memory, bus, storage devices, ...) • Software, consisting of the programs it has (Operating system, applications, utilities, ...) Hardware: CPU Hardware: CPU Central Processing Unit (CPU): – the “brain” of the machine – location of circuitry that performs arithmetic and logical ML statements – measurement: speed (roughly) in megahertz (millions of clock­ticks per second) – examples: Intel Pentium, AMD K6, Motorola PowerPC, Sun SPARC, Hardware: RAM Hardware: RAM Random Access Memory (RAM) – “main” memory, which is fast, but volatile... – analogous to a person’s short­term memory. – many tiny “on­off” switches: for convenience • “on” is represented by 1, “off” by 0. – each switch is called a binary digit, or bit. • 8 bits is called a byte. • 210 bytes =1024 bytes is called a kilobyte (1K) • 220 bytes is called a megabyte (1M). Hardware (Disk) Hardware (Disk) Secondary Memory (Disk): – Stable storage using magnetic or optical media. – Analogous to a person’s long­term memory. – Slower to access than RAM. – Examples: • floppy disk (measured in kilobytes) • hard disk (measured in gigabytes (230 bytes)) • CD­ROM (measured in megabytes), ... Hardware: the Bus Hardware: the Bus The Bus: – Connects CPU to other hardware devices. – Analogous to a person’s spinal cord. – Speed measured in megahertz (like the CPU), but typically much slower than the CPU... – The bottleneck in most of today’s PCs. Hardware: Cache Hardware: Cache While accessing RAM is faster than accessing secondary memory, it is still quite slow, relative to the rate at which the CPU runs. To circumvent this problem, most systems add a fast cache memory to the CPU, to store recently used instructions and data. (Assumption: Since such instructions/data were needed recently, they will be needed again in the near future.) Hardware: Summary Hardware: Summary Putting the pieces together: cache CPU Main Memory Secondary Memory Bus Programs are stored (long­term) in secondary memory, and loaded into main memory to run, from which the CPU retrieves and executes their statements. Software: OS Software: OS The operating system (OS) is loaded from secondary memory into main memory when the computer is turned on, and remains in memory until the computer is turned off. Cache Bus CPU RAM OS Disk Software: OS Software: OS The OS acts as the “manager” of the system, making sure that each hardware device interacts smoothly with the others. It also provides the interface by which the user interacts with the computer, and awaits user input if no application is running. Examples: MacOS, Windows­95, Windows­ NT, UNIX, Linux, Solaris, ... Software: Applications Software: Applications Applications are non­OS programs that perform some useful task, including word processors, spreadsheets, databases, web browsers, C++ compilers, ... Example C++ compilers/environments: – CodeWarrior (MacOS, Win95, WinNT, Solaris) – GNU C++ (UNIX, Linux) – Turbo/Borland C++ (Win95, WinNT) – Visual C++ (Win95, WinNT) Software: User Programs Software: User Programs Programs that are neither OS programs nor applications are called user programs. User programs are what you’ll be writing in this course. Putting it all together Putting it all together Programs and applications that are not running are stored on disk. Cache Bus CPU RAM OS Disk App Putting it all together Putting it all together When you launch a program, the OS controls the CPU and loads the program from disk to RAM. Bus OS Disk RAM OS App Cache CPU App Putting it all together Putting it all together The OS then relinquishes the CPU to the program, which begins to run. Bus App Disk RAM OS App Cache CPU App The Fetch­Execute Cycle The Fetch­Execute Cycle As the program runs, it repeatedly fetches the next instruction (from memory/cache), executes it, and stores any results back to memory. App Disk RAM OS App Cache CPU App Bus That’s all a computer does: fetch­execute­store, millions of times each second! Summary Summary A computer has two kinds of components: – Hardware: its CPU, RAM, Disk(s), ... – Software, its OS, Applications, and User Programs. ...
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