Ch1 - CIS775: Computer Architecture Chapter 1: Fundamentals...

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1 CIS775: Computer Architecture Chapter 1: Fundamentals of Computer Design
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2 Course Objectives To evaluate the issues involved in choosing and designing instruction set. To learn concepts behind advanced pipelining techniques. To understand the “hitting the memory wall” problem and the current state-of-art in memory system design. To understand the qualitative and quantitative tradeoffs in the design of modern computer systems
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3 What is Computer Architecture? Functional operation of the individual HW units within a computer system, and the flow of information and control among them. Technology Programming Language Interface Interface Design (ISA) Measurement & Evaluation Parallelism Computer Architecture : Applications OS Hardware Organization
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4 Computer Architecture Topics Instruction Set Architecture Pipelining, Hazard Resolution, Superscalar, Reordering, Prediction, Speculation, Vector, DSP Addressing, Protection, Exception Handling L1 Cache L2 Cache DRAM Disks, WORM, Tape Coherence, Bandwidth, Latency Emerging Technologies Interleaving Memories RAID VLSI Input/Output and Storage Memory Hierarchy Pipelining and Instruction Level Parallelism
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5 Computer Architecture Topics M Interconnection Network S P M P M P M P ° ° ° Topologies, Routing, Bandwidth, Latency, Reliability Network Interfaces Shared Memory, Message Passing, Data Parallelism Processor-Memory-Switch Multiprocessors Networks and Interconnections
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6 Measurement and Evaluation Design Analysis Architecture is an iterative process: Searching the space of possible designs At all levels of computer systems Creativity Good Ideas Good Ideas Mediocre Ideas Bad Ideas Cost / Performance Analysis
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7 Issues for a Computer Designer Functional Requirements Analysis (Target) Scientific Computing – HiPerf floating pt. Business – transactional support/decimal arith. General Purpose –balanced performance for a range of tasks Level of software compatibility PL level Flexible, Need new compiler, portability an issue Binary level (x86 architecture) Little flexibility, Portability requirements minimal OS requirements Address space issues, memory management, protection Conformance to Standards Languages, OS, Networks, I/O, IEEE floating pt.
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8 Computer Systems: Technology Trends 1988 Supercomputers Mas sively Par allel Processors Mini-supercomputers Minicomputers Workstations PC’s 2002 Powerful PC’s and SMP Workstations Network of SMP Workstations Mainframes Supercomputers Embedded Computers
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9 Why Such Change in 10 years? Performance Technology Advances CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) VLSI dominates older technologies like TTL (transistor transistor logic) in cost AND performance Computer architecture advances improves low-end RISC, pipelining, superscalar, RAID, … Price: Lower costs due to … Simpler development CMOS VLSI: smaller systems, fewer components Higher volumes Lower margins by class of computer, due to fewer services Function :Rise of networking/local interconnection technology
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10 Growth in Microprocessor Performance
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11 Six Generations of DRAMs
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2012 for the course ECE 565 taught by Professor Lee during the Spring '11 term at IUP.

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Ch1 - CIS775: Computer Architecture Chapter 1: Fundamentals...

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