NCE 2102
–
Fundamentals of Surveying
Engr. Franz Alexis B. Juanico
1
st
semester 2019 - 2020
U n i v e r s i t y o f t h e E a s t
–
M a n i l a
C o l l e g e o f E n g i n e e r i n g
C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t
Horizontal Curves

Route Surveying
•
Supplies necessary data o determine
alignment
,
grading
, and
earthwork
quantities
for the design of various engineering projects
such as roads, railroads, pipelines and utilities.
•
A survey for determining the route for a proposed project in order
to acquire a Right-of-Way, servitude or easement from the property
owner being crossed.

Horizontal Curves
•
Provides a transition between two straight lines of a roadway, also called as
Tangents
, when a direct point of intersection is not feasible.
•
To reduce speed of vehicles
Design Considerations
•
Speed Limit in Highways
•
Location of Obstructions
•
Degree of Curve
•
Radius of Curve

Simple Curves
Elements of a Simple Curve
•
Backward and Forward Tangents
•
Point of Curvature (PC)
•
Point of Tangency (PT)
•
Point of Intersection (PI)
•
Radius of the Curve (R)
•
Angle of Intersection (I)
•
Tangent Distance (T)
•
Chord Distance (C)
•
Middle Ordinate (M)
•
External Distance (E)
•
Degree of Curve (D)
•
Length of Curve (L)
R
R
T
T
C/2
C/2
L/2
L/2
M
E
PC
PT
PI
I
I
I/2

Elements of a Simple Curve
•
Tangent Distance (
T
)
•
Chord Distance (
C
)
•
Middle Ordinate (
M
)
R
R
T
T
C/2
C/2
L/2
L/2
M
E
PC
PT
PI
I
I
I/2

Elements of a Simple Curve
•
External Distance (
E
)
•
Length of Curve (
L
)
R
R
T
T
C/2
C/2
L/2
L/2
M
E
PC
PT
PI
I
I
I/2