fip46-2 - Return to the FIPS Home Page FIPS PUB 46-2...

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Return to the FIPS Home Page FIPS PUB 46-2 Supersedes FIPS PUB 46-1 1988 January 22 Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 46-2 1993 December 30 Announcing the Standard for DATA ENCRYPTION STANDARD (DES) (The Foreword, Abstract, and Key Words can be found at the end of this document.) Federal Information Processing Standards Publications (FIPS PUBS) are issued by the National Bureau of Standards in accordance with section 111 (f) (2) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended, Public Law 89-306 (79 Stat 1127), Executive Order 11717 (38 FR 12315, dated May 11, 1973), and Part 6 of Title 15 Code of Federal Regulations. 1. Name of Standard. Data Encryption Standard (DES). 2. Category of Standard. Computer Security. 3. Explanation. The Data Encryption Standard (DES) specifies a FIPS approved cryptographic algorithm as required by FIPS 140-1. This publication provides a complete description of a mathematical algorithm for encrypting (enciphering) and decrypting (deciphering) binary coded information. Encrypting data converts it to an unintelligible form called cipher. Decrypting cipher converts the data back to its original form called plaintext. The algorithm described in this standard specifies both enciphering and deciphering operations which are based on a binary number called a key. A key consists of 64 binary digits ("O"s or "1"s) of which 56 bits are randomly generated and used directly by the algorithm. The other 8 bits, which are not used by the algorithm, are used for error detection. The 8 error detecting bits are set to make the parity of each 8-bit byte of the key odd, i.e., there is an odd number of "1"s in each 8-bit byte 1 . Authorized users of encrypted computer data must have the key that was used to encipher the data in order to decrypt it. The encryption algorithm specified in this standard is commonly known among those using the standard. The unique key chosen for use in a particular application makes the results of encrypting data using the algorithm unique. Selection of a different key causes the cipher that is produced for any given set of inputs to be different. The cryptographic security of the data depends on the security provided for the key used to encipher and decipher the data. Data can be recovered from cipher only by using exactly the same key used to encipher it. Unauthorized recipients of the cipher who know the algorithm but do not have the correct key cannot derive the original data algorithmically. However, anyone who does have the key and the algorithm can easily decipher the cipher and obtain the original data. A standard algorithm based on a secure key thus provides a basis for
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exchanging encrypted computer data by issuing the key used to encipher it to those authorized to have the data.
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fip46-2 - Return to the FIPS Home Page FIPS PUB 46-2...

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