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Plant-People Interactions

Plant-People Interactions - Plant-People Interactions 1 Day...

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Plant-People Interactions 1 st Day Botany = study of plants Importance of plants: - Food - Medicine - Shelter - Clothes - Clean air - Currency - Energy - Aesthetic beauty - Oxygen Basic plant structure Roots - Below ground - First structure to emerge from the seed - Main functions: + Absorption of water and minerals + anchor plant Modified roots Grasses have many roots - Good for holding soil and preventing erosion Tropical trees have buttresses - Root start above ground and help anchor tree Food storage - Root stores food from first year - Some biennial crop plants: carrot, sweet potato Stems - Above ground - Main functions: + support leaves for maximum photosynthesis +support flowers to attract pollinators + conduct food and water Modified stems Water storage - Many succulents have swollen stems (green part of cactus) Support - Vines have tendrils: grapevine, watermelon Food storage - Some plants have bulbs or tubers: tulips, potatoes Leaves - Usually green, borne on stems - Main functions:
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+ photosynthesis + transpiration Modified leaves Pollinator attractants - Colorful leaves surround small flowers: poinsettia, bougainvillea Protection - Spines are hard and sharp Support - Vines have tendrils: peas, beans Reproductive structures Flowers - Only produced by some plants - Attract pollinators- color, nectar, odor - Often have male and female parts in the same flower Fruits - Every flowering plant produces fruit - Protects seeds, aids in dispersal by wind, water, animals Seeds - Embryo - Food source - Seed coat Seeds Good food source for humans - Stored food for embryo - Produced in large quantities - Easily harvested without harm to parent plant Types of plants Non-vascular plants (mosses) - Simplest, small, no true vascular system Seedless vascular plants (ferns) Gymnosperms (conifers) - Can be very large, produces seeds but no flowers Angiosperms (flowering plants) - Produce flowers and fruit, vast diversity We will concentrate on angiosperms - Most familiar to humans - Most economically important -
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2 nd Day Agriculture = cultivation of plants Domestication = genetic alteration of plants by humans Knowledge of foraging societies Archaeological evidence - Middens - Coprolites Modern evidence - !Kung - Ainu Why did we start farming? Previous explanation: theory of the brilliant sage - Sow seeds= grow crops - Plants growing in middens from discarded seeds - Seeds buried with dead sprouted Did agriculture start in 1 region? Fertile Crescent, ,Cradle of Agriculture China, Papua New Guinea, Americas Possible reasons Climate change - Mid. East got drier around 11,000 years ago - People crowded around water supplies Population increase - May have gotten too big to support hunter-gatherer lifestyle Selection Selection - Occurs constantly in population of plants - Certain traits/characteristics/alleles always being selected for/against Natural selection - Occurs in wild population containing natural variation - Environment selects against certain traits Artificial selection -
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