anthro notes ch. 10

anthro notes ch. 10 - Ch.10 The First Farmers The Broad...

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Ch.10: The First Farmers The Broad Spectrum Revolution: the period beginning around 15,000 B.P in the Middle East and 12,000 B.P in Europe, during which a wider range of plant and animal life was hunted, gathered, caught and fished. it was considered revolutionary because it led to food production in the Middle East - foragers had to pursue new resources as big-game supply diminished o humans attention shifted from large bodied, slow reproducers like mammoths to species like fish, mollusks and rabbits that reproduce quickly and prolifically - they grew their own food and modified the biological characteristics of the plants and animals in their diet o by 7500 B.P Middle Easterners moved away from broad spectrum foraging to more specialized economies based on fewer domesticate species. The Transition to Farmers and Herders: 1. The era of seminomadic hunting and gathering : (12,000 – 10,000 B.P) encompasses the last stages of broad spectrum foraging. 2. The era of early dry farming and caprine domestication : (10,000- 7500 B.P) a. Dry farming: farming without irrigation (dependent on rainfall); farmed wheat and barley b. Caprine: refers to goats and sheep which were domesticated during this era 3. The era of increasing specialization in food production: (7500 – 5500 B.P) new crops were added to the diet along with more productive varieties of wheat and barley. Cattle and pigs were domesticated as well. The Neolithic Revolution: describes the origin and impact of food production -- plant cultivation and animal domestication the main significance of the Neolithic was the new total economy not just the tool making techniques (which the term neolitihic refers to) now Neolithic refers to the first cultural period in a given region in which the first signs of domestication are present The Hilly Flanks: the subtropical woodland zone that flanks those rivers to the north food production began in the Hilly Flanks where wild wheat and barley would have been most abundant foragers were able to adopt sedentism (sedentary life in villages) because the local environments were so rich in resources The Natufians: group of peoples who collected wild cereals and hunted gazelles and had year round villages cause they were able to harvest nearby wild cereals for 6 months
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o around 11,000 B.P they were threatened by a second climate change and many wild cereal habitats dried up and the optimal zone for foraging shrank this restricted Natufian villages to areas with permanent water o the site of Abu Hureyra, Syria yields the remains of grinding stones, wild plants illustrating the Natufian’s permanent architectural features and evidence of prossing and storage of wild grains The Hilly Flanks had the densest human population prior to domestication
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anthro notes ch. 10 - Ch.10 The First Farmers The Broad...

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