anthro notes ch.15

anthro notes ch.15 - Ch. 15: Making a Living Adaptive...

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Ch. 15: Making a Living Adaptive strategy: describes a group’s system of economic production The most important reasons for similarities between two or more unrelated societies is their possession of a similar adaptive strategy Cohen’s typology of societies includes 5 adaptive strategies: 1. foraging 2. horticulture 3. agriculture 4. pastoralism 5. industrialism Foraging: in general as one moves from colder to warmer areas there is an increase in the number of species tropical foragers typically hunt and gather a wider range of plant and animal life * one shared essential feature: people rely on available natural resources for their subsistence rather than controlling the reproduction of plants and animals food production has existed less than 1% of the time homo has been on Earth Band (the basic social unit) : small group of fewer than 100 people all related by kinship or marriage Fission/Fusion (Fluidity): Experienced seasonal splits and reunions San aggregated around waterholes in the dry season and split up in the wet season Mobility one might be born in about where their mother has kin and move later to a band with a father’s relatives Bands were Exogamous: people married outside their own band Recent Foraging: though foraging is dying out outlines of Africa’s two broad belts of recent foraging remain evident: 1. Kalahari Desert of southern Africa: home of San including Ju/ ‘hoansi Dobe Ju/’hoansi area surrounded by waterless belt 45- 125 miles in breadth Environmental limits prevent food production 2. Equatorial forest of central and eastern Africa: home of Mbuti, Efe and other “pygmies” Correlations: association or covariation between two or more variables correlated variables are factors that are linked and interrelated like: food intake and body weight Social Distinctions:
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Men typically hunted and fished while woment gathered and collected Egalitarian societies: Distinctions based on age ie. Old people received great respect Horticulture: cultivation that makes intensive use of none of the factors of production: land, labor, capital and machinery Uses simple tools such as hoes and digging sticks to grow crops Fields are not permanently cultivated Use of slash and burn technique: The clearing of land by cutting down (slashing) and burning forest or bush covering a plot Vegetation is broken down, pests are killed, and the ashes remain to fertilize the soil Also known as shifting cultivation because they shift from plot to plot Agriculture: cultivation that requires more labor than horticulture because it uses land intensively and continuously Domesticated Animals: use of animals as a means of production Can be used for transport, as cultivating machines and for their manure Rice farmers use cattle to trample, pretilled flooded fields, thus mixing soil and water prior to transplanting
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anthro notes ch.15 - Ch. 15: Making a Living Adaptive...

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