Honors Biology

Honors Biology - Biology Review Chapter 1 1. Inductive and...

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Unformatted text preview: Biology Review Chapter 1 1. Inductive and Deductive Reason 2. Hypothesis and Discovery based Science Chapter 5 1. Glucose + Glucose = Maltose 2. Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose 3. Fatty Acid 4. Cholesterol does not contain amino acids 5. Hydrogen bonds maintain the secondary structure of the protein 6. Frederick Sanger 7. Difference between sugar in DNA and RNA: one oxygen 8. Glycerol Chapter 6 1. 9+2 arrangement = cilia and flagella 2. Microtubules, Microfilaments, Intermediate filaments 3. To form cilia and flagella, cells need centrosomes and ribosomes 4. Gap junctions: ions move in and out Chapter 7 1. Osmoregulation 2. Membrane Potential Chapter 8 1. Change in G = change in free energy 2. Change in H = change in the systems enthalpy 3. Change in S = change in the systems entropy 4. Increasing the substrate concentration in an enzymatic reaction could overcome competitive inhibition 5. Competitive inhibitors block the entry of a substrate into the active site of an enzyme and depend on the ability of an enzyme to form a template for holding and joining molecules. 6. An increase in ATP would be caused by an increase in a cells catabolic activity. 7. A noncompetitive inhibitor decreases the rate of an enzyme reaction by changing the shape of a reactant. 8. Allosteric inhibitor 9. Cooperativity is when a substrate molecule bound to an active site affects the active site of several subunits. Chapter 9 1. End products of glycolysis: NADH and pyruvate 2. The net products of glycolysis: 2NADH, 2H+, 2 pyuvate, 2ATP, and 2H20 3. A phosphorylated molecule has an increased chemical reactivity; it is primed to do cellular work 4. In the presence of oxygen, the process of catabolizing pyruvate results in the formation of acetyl CoA, NAHD, H+, and CO2 5. Coenzyme A is added to provide a relatively unstable molecule whose acetyl portion can readily bind to oxalocetate. 6. Pyruvate enters the mitochondrion through active transport. 7. 2 carbon atoms fed into the citric acid cycle as a result of oxidation of one molecule of pyruvate 8. CO2 is released during oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle. 9. 12 NADH + FADH2 produced during glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. 10. Chemiosmotic phosphorylation harvests the most chemical energy. 11. Proteins of the electron transport chain are located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. 12. The oxygen for the synthesis of water in oxidative phosphorylation comes from molecular oxygen. 13. ATP synthase is located in the inner membrane. 14. 6 oxygen molecules are required 15. At the end of the electron transport chain, 4 electrons combine with oxygen and protons. 16. Yeast cells can obtain energy by fermentation, resulting in ATP, CO2, and ethanol 17. One function of both alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation is to oxidize NADH to NAD+....
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Honors Biology - Biology Review Chapter 1 1. Inductive and...

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