Chapter 8 Biology Notes

Chapter 8 Biology Notes - 1 Chapter 8...

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1 Chapter 8 Overview -Bioluminescence : process where cells of the fungus convert the energy stored in certain organic molecules to light Section 8.1- An organism’s metabolism transforms matter and energy, subject to the laws of thermodynamics 1. Organization of the Chemistry of Life into Metabolic Pathways a. A metabolic pathway begins with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a series of defined steps, resulting in a certain product. Each step of the pathway is catalyzed by a specific enzyme b. Mechanisms that regulate enzymes balance metabolic supply and demand, averting deficits or surpluses of important cellular molecules. c. A catabolic pathway release energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds (breakdown pathways). 1. An example would be cellular respiration, in which sugar glucose and other organic fuels are broken down in the presence of oxygen to carbon dioxide and water. d. Anabolic pathways consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones (biosynthetic pathways). 1. An example would be the synthesis of a protein from amino acids. e. Energy released from the downhill reactions of catabolic pathways can be stored and then used to drive the uphill reactions of anabolic pathways. f. Bioenergetics is the study of how energy flows through living organisms 2. Forms of Energy a. Kinetic energy is the relative motion of objects. b. Heat, or thermal energy, is kinetic energy associated with the random movement of atoms or molecules. c. Potential energy is energy that matter possesses because of its locations or structure. d. Chemical energy refers to the potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction. 3. The Laws of Energy Transformation a. Thermodynamics is the study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter. b. A system is matter that is being studied. Surroundings are the rest of the universe. An isolated system is unable to exchange either energy or matter with its surroundings. An open system is one where energy and matter can be transferred between the system and its surroundings. (Example: organisms) 4. The First Law of Thermodynamics (Principle of Conservation of Energy) a. The energy of the universe is constant. Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed. 5. The Second Law of Thermodynamics a. Entropy is a measure of disorder, or randomness. b. The Second Law : Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe. c. In order for the process to occur on its own, without an input of energy, it must increase the entropy of the universe. (spontaneous) 6. Biological Order and Disorder
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2 a. It’s true that cells create ordered structures from less organized starting materials. However, an organism also takes in organized forms of matter and energy from the
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Chapter 8 Biology Notes - 1 Chapter 8...

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