Chapter 12 notes

Chapter 12 notes - Chapter 12 Notes- Cell Division Overview...

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Chapter 12 Notes- Cell Division Overview 1. Cell division is the reproduction of cells. 2. The cell cycle is the life of a cell form the time it is formed from a dividing parent cell until its own division into two cells. 12.1 Cell Division 1. A dividing cell duplicates its DNA, allocated the two copies to opposite ends of the cell, and only then splits into daughter cells. 2. Cellular Organization of the Genetic Material a. Genome is a cell’s genetic information. b. Chromosomes are packaged DNA molecules so named because they take up certain dyes used in microscopy. c. The nuclei of human somatic cells (body cells except reproductive ones) contain 46 chromosomes made up of two sets of 23, one set inherited from each parents. d. Reproductive cells, or gametes –sperm and eggs- have half as many chromosomes as somatic cells, or one set of 23 chromosomes. e. Chromatin are a complex of DNA and associated protein molecules. 3. Distribution of Chromosomes During Eukaryotic Cell Division a. Each duplicated chromosome has two sister chromatids . They each contain an identical DNA molecule and are initially attached all along their lengths by adhesive protein complexes called cohesins ; this attachment is known as sister chromatid cohesion . b. The centromere is a specialized region where two chromatids are most closely attached. The part of a chromatid on either side of the centromere is referred to as an arm of the chromatid. c. Meiosis is cell division that yields non-identical daughter cells that have only one set of chromosomes. It occurs in your gonads (testes and ovaries). 12.2 The mitotic phase alternates with interphase in the cell cycle 1. German anatomist named Walther Flemming developed dyes that allowed him to observe the behavior of chromosomes during mitosis and cytokinesis. 2.
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This note was uploaded on 02/07/2012 for the course BIO 1711 taught by Professor Burleson during the Spring '11 term at North Texas.

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Chapter 12 notes - Chapter 12 Notes- Cell Division Overview...

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