Chapter 20 Biotechnology 1. A key accomplishment was the invention of techniques for making recombinant DNA , DNA molecules formed when sgements of DNA from two different sources-often different species- are combined in vitro . 2. Biotechnology is the manipulation of organisms or their components to make useful products. 3. Biotechnology also encompasses genetic engineering , the direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes. 20.1 DNA cloning yields multiple copies of a gene or other DNA segment 1. DNA cloning and it’s application a. E. coli chromosome is a large, circular molecule of DNA. In addition, E.coli and many other bacteria have plasmids , small circular DNA molecules that replicate separately from the bacterial chromosome. b. The production of multiple copies of a single gene is called gene cloning. c. Gene cloning is useful for two basic purposes: to make many copies of a particular gene and to produce a protein product.
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