chapter14 - Objectives Understand the performance...

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Unformatted text preview: Objectives Understand the performance limitations of Von Neumann architecture Learn why computer speed enables new innovation Gain an understanding of current and future computing paradigms Learn how light and biologic computers can speed processing Objectives (continued) Learn what the Turing Test is and how it applies to computing Learn about the changing shape of computers Learn how computers are merging with other devices Learn about innovations in memory and data storage Objectives (continued) Learn how the Internet will affect future computing Gain an understanding of artificial intelligence (AI) Learn about developments in AI Hardware Limitations The main limitations of hardware continue to be related to three factors Speed Physical size Power requirements Limitations of Von Neumann Architecture Most computers today are limited by the number of instructions that can be processed each second However, increasing the CPU seldom results a proportional overall speed increase in the computer Von Neumann architecture has to fetch instructions from RAM over the system bus Bus speeds are limited Input and output devices limit overall speed Why Speed Is Important Many tasks currently cannot be accomplished because of the speed limitations Visual recognition Speech recognition Character recognition Accurate weather predictions Computer robotic systems A New Paradigm A paradigm is a theoretical framework, or a way of doing things To achieve a giant leap in speed requires a paradigm shift in the design of computer hardware (the Von Neumann architecture) Semiconductors and transistors have speed limitations Light Computers Shifting from semiconductor switches and electrical buses to optical switches and fiber optic buses promises a large increase in the speed of computing Light buses are not limited to the speeds of electronic buses Light beams can cross without interfering with each other Light computers require much less power Quantum Computers A computer built using the principles of quantum mechanics The study of matter and radiation at an atomic level The fundamental unit of information is a qubit A qubit can represent four values (the bit in Von Neumann architecture can represent two values) Scientists predict that the quantum computers of the future will have speeds millions of times faster than current computers Biological Computers Prototype biological computers use enzymes and DNA Speeds comparable to the speed of the Pentium 2.4 GHz CPU Billions of biological computers could fit in the same space as a current semiconductor CPU Researchers are trying to design biological computers that can be used inside the body to watch for and treat problems Passing the Turing Test The Turing Test was conceived by Alan Turing in 1950 Reveals whether a machine has the equivalent of...
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chapter14 - Objectives Understand the performance...

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