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1106Topic3A - ANP 1106A Topic 3 Anatomy of the Skeletal...

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ANP 1106A: Topic 3 Anatomy of the Skeletal System A. Bony Tissues
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Chapter 6 (omit details on embryonic bone formation & fracture repair) : BONES & SKELETAL TISSUES Bone is a living dynamic tissue which responds to its environment: 1) Bone reacts to amount of force applied by increasing both the density & amount of roughening on bone or decreasing density when force is reduced or eliminated (eg: paralysis) ( deposition vs resorption ) 2) Bone stores calcium – resorbed & transferred to bloodstream when needed FUNCTIONS OF BONE 1) SUPPORT: 2) PROTECTION: 5) MOVEMENT: 6) MINERAL STORAGE: 9) BLOOD CELL FORMATION:
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3.1: Compare the structure of bony tissues and cartilages CARTILAGE features between dense CT & bone tough, but flexible (i) avascular, devoid of nerve fibers (ii) ground substance contains lots of the GAGs chondroitin sulfate & hyaluronic acid - also chondronectin, (adhesive protein) (iii) collagen fibers (can have some elastic fibers) (iv) up to 80% H2O Some terms relating to cartilage: perichondrium: …………………………………………………………………..…… In damaged areas, perichondrium can form scar tissue because poorly vascularized cartilage repairs badly; ossification of cartilage with aging!! chondroblasts: high MR: immature cartilage cells - actively form cartilage chondrocytes: low MR: mature cartilage cells  maintain cartilage lacunae: localized clusters of chondrocytes in cartilage - why clusters?? J. Carnegie, UofO
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Types of Cartilage: a) HYALINE CARTILAGE: most abundant; firm support + pliability; lots of collagen; appears glassy blue-white; chondrocytes - only 1-10% of volume Loc: embryonic skeleton, ends of long bones (epiphyseal plates in growing children), costal cartilages of ribs, cartilages of nose, trachea, larynx Fcn: supports & reinforces; resilient cushioning & resists compressive stress b) ELASTIC CARTILAGE: like hyaline cartilage, but more elastic fibers Loc: external ear, epiglottis - why does this make sense?? Fcn: maintains shape while giving lots of flexibility c) FIBROCARTILAGE: rows of chondrocytes alternating with rows of thick collagen fibers; structural intermediate between hyaline cartilage & dense regular CT Loc: intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, discs of knee joints (where hyaline cartilage meets a ligament or a tendon) Fcn: tensile strength with ability to absorb compressive shock J. Carnegie,  UofO
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BONE calcium salts give hardness & strength for support/protection of softer tissues; cavities for fat storage & synthesis of blood cells
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