STUDY NOTES - Standard anatomical position: Body erect,...

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Standard anatomical position: Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms forward, thumbs away from body. Remember that “right” and “left” refer to the patient or the cadaver, NOT THE OBSERVER. 2 Fundamental divisions of body: Axial part = head, body and trunk Appendicular part = appendages or limbs attached to axis There are also regional terms that is used to designate specific areas within axial and appendicular part of body Planes / Sections: There are 3 planes 1. Sagittal plane: vertical plane that divide body into left & right parts. NOT RIGHT AND LEFT HALVES: This is because some planes are parasagittal plane. Where the cut off is not exactly in the middle. In order to have equal halves, midsagittal or median plane. 2. Frontal plane (Coronal): vertical plane that divide body into anterior and posterior parts. 3. Transverse (Horizontal) plane: horizontal plane that divides body into superior and inferior parts. (Traverse section = cross-section) 1 more section: Oblique section – plane is cut at an angle. Definitions: Superior: above Inferior: below Anterior (ventral): in front Posterior (dorsal): behind Medial: towards middle Lateral: away from middle Intermediate: between medial and lateral Proximal: closer Distal: further Superficial: towards body surface Deep: away from body surface Body cavities: Dorsal (posterior): Cranial and vertebral cavity. Cranial cavity unclosed by skull and houses the brain. Vertebral cavity enclosed by the vertebrae and houses the spinal cord. Both cavities are very well- protected. (Very strong and bony) Ventral (anterior): Thoracic cavity (superior) and abdominopelvic cavity (inferior) Thoracic cavity contains 2 lateral pleural cavities (lungs) and central pericardial cavity (heart). Thoracic cavity is surrounded by ribs and muscles of chest – decent protection. Abdominopelvic cavity (two parts) Superior – abdominal (stomach, intestine, spleen, liver) – nothing covering them – no protection Inferior – pelvic (in bony pelvis, contain urinary bladder, some reproductive organs and rectum) Bony pelvis sort of protects – protection is basic
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Diaphragm separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities, nothing separates the abdominal and pelvic cavity Structure of skin: 2 distinct regions: Epidermis (superficial part of skin) – epithelial layer (thick, keratinized stratified squamous epithelium) Dermis (deep part of skin) – Connective tissues There is also the hypodermis, known as superficial fascia because it is superficial to the tough connective tissue wrapping of skeletal muscles, it consists mostly of adipose tissue– not really skin, but shares the skins protective functions. Contains areolar CT+ blood vessels, adipose tissue (store fat) Act as shock absorber, insulator. It thickens when weight is gained. It anchors skin to underlying structures with ability to slide. Epidermis isn’t vascularized, dermis and hypodermis is. Epidermis gets nutrition from diffusion.
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This note was uploaded on 02/08/2012 for the course ANP 1105 taught by Professor Carnegie during the Fall '08 term at University of Ottawa.

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STUDY NOTES - Standard anatomical position: Body erect,...

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