firstterm - Pathology 1 Link between clinical and basic...

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Link between clinical and basic sciences Clinical pathology= study of the cause and mechanisms of disease, and the effects of disease upon the various organs and systems Experimental pathology= experimental studies on tissues, cell cultures or animal models Hematology= study of blood disorders Microbiology= study of infectious diseases Immunology= study of the body’s defence mechanisms Genetics=study of abnormal chromosomes and genes Prognosis= the anticipated course of the disease and final outcome ( ie. Cure, remission, morbidity, mortality) Role of Pathologist Diagnosis, clinical support, autopsy, research Techniques Histopathology= examination of tissues Cytopathology= examination of isolated cells Surgical pathology= examination of surgical specimens Gross pathology= visual observations and descriptions of organs and tissues (macroscopic)-naked eye examination Light microscope= sections under the microscope-cell morphology Electron microscope= parts of cell-changes in organelles Cellular level= immunohistochemistry-shows a specific protein, biochemical assay, biopsy cell culture Molecular level= analysis of DNA, RNA and protein(chromosome analysis and DNA sequencing) Pathology is the study of disease Pathos= “disease” or “suffering”; logos= “study” The study of the structural and functional changes in cells, tissues and organs of the body that cause or are caused by disease Disease= result from some disturbance to cells as a result of physical or environmental harm or as a result of a genetic aberration (inherited or acquired)= the pattern of response of living organisms to injury= any deviation from, or interruption of, the normal structure or function→ identify based on physical appearance →when cells fail to adapt to the injury OR the adaptive mechanism itself becomes harmful, disease results Identifying disease: Physical signs= objectively observed or measured by a physician (fever, swollen ankle, abnormal heart beat) Clinical symptoms= subjective complaints described by the patient (pain, dizziness, nausea) → what the patient tells you →these changes appear late in the disease process, after a disease is present and has been acting at the cellular level Impact Morbidity= illness that impairs the well-being and normal functioning of a patient Mortality= causing the death of a patient →different for different age groups Females>males for life expectancy Males: 66→78 Females: 70-82 Women>men die of stroke Women>men for mortality rate from lung cancer Incidence= # of NEW cases in a population →similar to prevalence in short lived and fatal diseases Prevalence= TOTAL # of cases (new and old) →important for chronic diseases (always increasing) Top Causes of MORTALITY in Canada 1. Cardiovascular disease 2. Cancer 3. Cerebrovascular disease (stroke) →58% of all deaths in ‘05
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This note was uploaded on 02/08/2012 for the course PATHOLOGY 3245 taught by Professor X during the Spring '11 term at UWO.

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firstterm - Pathology 1 Link between clinical and basic...

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