immune system - Pathology-Immunity and Immune Disorders...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Pathology-Immunity and Immune Disorders Biology of the Immune System Immune system= collection of mechanisms that protects against disease and their products by identifying and killing pathogens, and tumour cells and protection against microbial toxins Immunology= science that examines the structure and function of the immune system Pathogens: viruses, bacteria, mycobacteria, parasites and fungi For the immune system to properly function it has to distinguish pathogens from self healthy cells Innate immune system: natural, born with it, not specific, does not require previous exposure to Ag/stimulant; characters: exposure leads to immediate maximal response, it is non specific, it does not require a previous exposure to an offending agent (antigen) and found in nearly all forms of life Adaptive immune system: acquired, more specific, requires previous exposure to a stimulant; characters: pathogen and antigen specific response, lag time between exposure and maximal response, cell mediated and humoral (Ab) components, cell mediated and humoral components (of inflammatory response), exposure leads to immunological memory, found only in jawed vertebrates Antigen= antibody generator= substances that bind to specific immune receptors and elicit immune response General characteristics of innate and acquired immunity 1. Recognition: the ability to distinguish between normal self, altered (damaged) self and non-self (foreign material) 2. Specificity: the ability to inactivate, destroy and remove the “offending” material, without damaging normal tissues in the vicinity of the reaction; reaction must be target specific 3. Regulation: the immune system is able to control the type, intensity and duration of the reaction and has the ability to prevent immune reaction (suppression) 4. Amplification: the effector (attack) phase of the immune reaction is mediated through multiple pathways which act synergistically for optimal effect; each pathway has built-in amplification systems; all these systems have different triggering points and each may be triggered independently, but eventually involve the other systems 5. Memory: the identity of the foreign material (immunogen) which led to the first (primary) immune response is remembered so that the next episode involving the same immunogen will result in an accelerated reaction (secondary immune response), which by-pass several initial steps that the primary immune response has to go through; confers long term immunity against infection Innate Immunity Takes place when a microorganism is able to break through the normal epithelial barriers of the skin, GI and respiratory tract; phagocytes ingest microbes and secrete cytokines which stimulate the inflammatory response; cells have various receptors (PRRs) that are able to recognize components that are preserved among broad groups of micro-organisms; GPCRs are the receptors for chemokines
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern