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Immunology 1 - Immunology 1-p.1-2 11-12 sections 2.1 and...

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08/09/2011 Immunology 1-p.1-2, 11-12; sections 2.1 and 2.2 Vaccination= inoculation of healthy individuals with weakened or attenuated strains of disease causing agents to provide protection from dieases—Edward Jenner Zoonotic infections= deadly infections that can transfer to humans from animal reservoirs Disease causing microorganisms (pathogens): viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites (unicellular and multicellular eukaryotic organisms Adaptive immune response=a specific immune response, such as production of antibodies against a particular pathogen=developed during the lifetime of an individual as an adaptation to infection ex. Immunological memory=protective immunity Innate immune response=always immediately available to combat a wide range of pathogens but does not lead to lasting immunity and is NOT specific for any individual pathogen Pathogen-recognition receptors of macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells recognize simple molecules and regular patterns of molecular structure known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)- present on microorganisms but not on the body’s own cells Pattern recognition receptors allow the innate immune system to distinguish self from non-self Adjuvants are needed to activate dendritic cells to full antigen-presenting status in the absence of infection Adaptive immune responses are initiated by antigen and antigen-presenting cells in secondary lymphoid tissues Dendritic cells have co-stimulatory molecules which provide signals that act together with antigen to stimulate the T lymphocyte to proliferate and differentiate Free antigens can stimulate the antigen receptors of B cells, but most B cells require help from activated helper T cells The activation of naive T lymphocytes is an essential first stage in virtually all adaptive immune responses The Immune system is a dangerous thing..because we live in a dangerous world Our immune system can do/make: reactive chemicals, pore-forming proteins, antibodies, cellular responses Control is critical: we must control the immune system since it can damage our body (ex autoimmune arthritis) Where Pathogens are found Intracellular pathogens are more common than extracellular ones Intracellular:--not affected by uptake and destruction by phagocytes Cystolic pathogens- ex viruses; protective immunity=NK cells and cytotoxic T cells Vesicular pathogens= can survive in destructive structures like lysosomes; protective
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