Chapter23IM - Chapter 23 Nuclear Chemistry This chapter...

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Chapter 23 Nuclear Chemistry This chapter discusses nuclear reactions, the stability of atomic nucleus, radioactivity, and the effects of radiation on biological systems. Upon completion of this chapter, your students should be able to: 1. Compare chemical and nuclear reactions. 2. State the charge, mass, and symbol for each of the following: proton neutron electron or beta particle positron alpha particle 3. Balance nuclear equations using the concepts of conservation of mass and atomic numbers. 4. Explain how nuclei having a neutron-to-proton ratio that is too high results in beta- particle emission and nuclei having a neutron-to-proton that is too low results in either positron emission or electron capture. 5. Use the concepts of nuclear binding energy, mass defect, and Einstein’s mass energy equivalence relationship to calculate nuclear binding energy per nucleon. 6. Describe a radioactive decay series using the terms parent and daughter. 7. Use half-life and first order kinetics to find number of radioactive atoms or mass left after a given length of time. 8. Use first order kinetics and disintegrations per time to calculate half-life. 9. Discuss carbon dating, data using uranium-238 and potassium-40 to estimate the age of objects. 10. Balance nuclear equations involving transmutation. 11. Describe how a cyclotron functions and its use.
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12. Use the terms nuclear chain reaction and critical mass to describe a self-sustaining nuclear reaction involving nuclear fission. 13. Sketch a diagram of a nuclear fission reactor used in power generation and discuss advantages and disadvantages of light water reactors versus heavy water reactors. 14. Describe how moderators are used to control the reaction rate in nuclear power plants. 15. Explain what is meant by the term breeder reactor in nuclear power generators. 16. List three potential hazards of nuclear power generation. 17. Compare nuclear fission to nuclear fusion and use the term thermonuclear reaction in the discussion. 18. Describe the state of matter known as plasma and discuss why the generation of plasma results in engineering difficulties when attempting to use nuclear fusion for power generation. 19. Cite examples of how radioactive isotopes are used in chemistry, biology, and medicine. 20. Use the term’s curie, rad, RBE, rem, and radicals to describe the biological effects of radiation on living organisms. Section 23.1 The Nature of Nuclear Reactions The principal particles involved in nuclear reactions include proton 1 1 H neutron 1 0 n electron (beta particle) 0 1 β - positron 0 1 + alpha particle 4 2 α In order to balance nuclear reactions, both conservation of mass number and atomic number must be observed. It is important to point out that we are working with the conservation of mass number and not conservation of mass. We will see later that mass is not conserved but is converted to energy in nuclear reactions. For a nuclear equation to be balanced, the sum of the
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This note was uploaded on 02/08/2012 for the course CHEM 161 taught by Professor Shaklovich during the Spring '10 term at Harvard.

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Chapter23IM - Chapter 23 Nuclear Chemistry This chapter...

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